Name: Course: Instructor: Date: In his article Williams tries to expound on the importance of employing humanistic approaches by the local law enforcement officers in their everyday interactions with immigrants. That is she tries to investigate on various determinants and practices by local and state officers while dealing with various concerns of immigrants. In other words Williams seeks to extrapolate on the contextual aspects of policing and enforcement and to explaining how extra efforts by official can go extra miles into achieving balanced officials-immigrants interactions and that of immigrants and other society members. Succinctly she goes on to elucidate on the concept of “welcomeness” and how it matters to both the immigrants and residents by analyzing the concept from various dimensions while examining how various departments are welcoming or unwelcoming to the immigrants. In a bid to further understand the conceptual relationship the Williams sought to investigate: How the the samples in terms of its population sizes and the further explication of the individual responses on perceived degree of welcomeness satisfies the measure. The general index of welcomeness sought to identify and classify the single additive factor of what immigrants felt encompassed welcomeness more so in police departments. Due to varying survey questions the construction of the general index necessitated the standardization of major components to a common mean that revolved around the average responses of the various dimensions tested. To aggregate on the dependent variable the index focused on the degree of how welcoming or unwelcoming departments varied on each dimension. Works Cited Creswell John W. "Research Design-Quantitative Qualitative and Mixed Methods Approaches." SAGE Publications. Thousand Oaks. of source separation and aerobic treatment. Waste Management and Research 20.5 (2003): 424. Williams Linda M. "Beyond enforcement: Welcomeness local law enforcement and immigrants." Public Administration Review 75.3 (2015): 433-442. [...]
Williams, L. M. (2015). Beyond Enforcement: Welcomeness, Local Law Enforcement, and Immigrants. – ATTACHED. Please read William's article and answer the following questions: 1) Write a short paragraph identifying and describing the TOPIC of the research article. 2) Please list the RESEARCH QUESTION (S) the author(s) pose? 3) Write a short paragraph breifly stating WHAT the author (s) suggest WE KNOW about this topic before the research was conducted. 4) Does the author (s) state (a) formal hypothesis? 5) which research method does (do) the author (s) employ (quantitative, qualitative, or mixed)? Please provide supporting evidence 6) Describe the sampling process and procedure used by the author (s). 7) Do you think the author use proper sampling technique? Explain. Draw on Creswell’s book (pp. 158-9 – provides overview) 8) Define and explain the construct of “welcomness”, and what is meant by it in the article. 9) How does Williams try to improve construct validity?, 10) Identify the level of measurement (Table 1 responses) 11) Describe the “General Index of Welcomeness” and how was it constructed? To answer some of the questions I have also attached Cresswell's book.