Name Professor Course Date MID-SEMESTER EXAMINATION SECTION A Structural functionalism also referred to as functionalism is used in sociology; it views society as a framework structure with parts that interrelate to promote integration and stability. The society is addressed in terms of the operation of its elements. The elements include customs traditions norms and institutions (Yakkaldevi 2014). Functionalist approach was first depicted by Auguste Comte as he stressed for cohesion after the French Revolution. It was popular in the twentieth century following the works of Emile Durhkheim who was informed by positivism to develop a solidarity theory. Herbert spencer related societal parts to organs that work to ensure body functioning. Functionalism emphasizes that each effort directed to each custom feature and practice of the society has an effect on the stability and cohesiveness of the society. Functionalism implies that social systems are under equilibrium a change in a part structures. Social networks 21(4) 375-395.Collier D. & Mahon J. E. (1993). Conceptual “stretching” revisited: Adapting categories in comparative analysis. American Political Science Review 87(4) 845-855. Johnson D. W. & Johnson F. P. (1991). Joining together: Group theory and group skills. Prentice-Hall Inc. Lijphart A. (1984). Democracies: Patterns of majoritarian and consensus government in twenty-one countries. Yale University Press.Lijphart A. (2012). Patterns of democracy: Government forms and performance in thirty-six countries. Yale University Press.Lipset S. M. (1959). Political man: The social bases of politics. O’donnell G. & Schmitter P. C. (2013). Transitions from authoritarian rule: Tentative conclusions about uncertain democracies. JHU Press.Sartori G. (1997). Comparative constitutional engineering: an inquiry into structures incentives and outcomes. NYU Press.Stradiotto G. A. & Guo S. (2010). Transitional modes of democratization and democratic outcomes. International Journal on World Peace 5-40. Yakkaldevi A. S. (2014). Sociological Theory. Functionalism. Social Research for Social Science. Laxmi Book Publication Solapur [...]
POJS 8300 Comparative Political and Justice Systems MID-SEMESTER EXAMINATION (Answers should not exceed 10 typewritten, 12pt., double-spaced pages, with in-text citations, where necessary, + a Reference Page with a list of sources) SECTION A: Briefly define and explain the meaning of the following terms and concepts. The entire section should not exceed three (3) pages. 1. Structural Functionalism 2. Transitional Pacts 3. The Consensus model of democracy 4. Conceptual Stretching 5. Group Theory 6. The core-periphery model SECTION B: Answer the following question for a total of four (4) pages. Several of the authors we studied this semester, including Lipset and So, have discussed modernization theory in a way which often implies democratization. O’Donnell and Schmitter and Linz have offered different perspectives on the start of transition. Contrast these approaches and assess the basic ideas of each. Which explanation is the most helpful and how does it enhance our understanding of the process of democratization? SECTION C: Answer the following question for a total of three (3) pages. Both Lijphart in Patterns of Democracy and Sartori in Comparative Constitutional Engineering attempt to provide us with important insights about how institutions affect democratic performance. Compare and contrast the way the two authors test their ideas. How did each of them operationalize the central concepts in their theory? What kind of data did they use? Which approach do you like better and why?