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Sampling

please write an essay similar to the one below..obviously not copy fro plagiarized rule :) APA format please. 1 page single space times roman font. use the same available reference at the end of the topic: External and Internal Validity, One goal of many research studies is to apply findings beyond the group from which they were drawn. Sampling is an important process in conducting research. “External validity (sometimes referred to as generalizability) is the extent to which a study's findings are applicable or relevant to a group outside the study (often the population from which the sample was drawn)”(Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 74). “Internal validity in its simplest form, refers to how confident the researcher can be about the independent variable (as opposed to outside influences) truly causing a change in a dependant variable” (Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 74). External validity cannot be quantified in terms of a specific set of guidelines. It can be evaluated in light of several characterics. Is the study explaned in eough detail that other reserachers could duplicate the study if they wished to. “Two other characterics : are related how to the sampling was conducted: how the respondents of the measure were chosen and the size of the sample” (Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg 74). Internal Validity: Internal validity is different from the validity measure, “internal validity is a measure of worth of the overall research design”(Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 74). There are 7 threats to the internal validity. (1). Extraneous and widespread events that coincede in time with your study. Example: Your teaching 7 graders social empathy skills during Autumn 2001. How do you know that the reprecussions of 9/11 did not account for some of their increased social empathy” (Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 74). (2). Maturation or passage of time- “the passage of time during a study can have an effect. Example” people who get sick or weak are less likely to commit crimes. Factors of age alone may account for lower crime incidents in older people” (Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 74). (3). Enhanced test-taking skills: “after taking a test for the first time, respondents performance on subsequent test often improve” (Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 75). (4). Instrumentation- “If different measures are used for the pretest and posttest, how we know that the posttest was not easier” (Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 75). For example, an easier posttest might inflate the differences in scores and thus effect the findings of the study. For example, an easier posttest might inflate the differences in scores and thus effect the findings of the study. (5). Selection bias- “refers to the differences between groups that are being compared that occur when group members choose which group (treatment or nontreatment groups) to be in. The difference might explain away any changes that occurs after the intervention” (Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 75). (6). Experimental mortability-”this refers to subjects dropping out of the study. This is the most common threat to internal validity, can affect sample size (you may not have enough respondents left at the end of the study to have meaningful findings) and generalizability” (Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 75). (7). Ambiguity about the direction of causual inference - “to establish causation, the independent variable must precede (cause) the change in the dependant variable. There is a relationship between the two variables of substance abuse and mental health issues” (Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 75. It is not clear which variable preceds the other. “ The best way to control for threats to internal validity is to use a group for comparison with the study group, which strenghtens the study” (Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 76). (5). Selection bias- “refers to the differences between groups that are being compared that occur when group members choose which group (treatment or nontreatment groups) to be in. The difference might explain away any changes that occurs after the intervention” (Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 75). (6). Experimental mortability-”this refers to subjects dropping out of the study. This is the most common threat to internal validity, can affect sample size (you may not have enough respondents left at the end of the study to have meaningful findings) and generalizability” (Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 75). (7). Ambiguity about the direction of causual inference - “to establish causation, the independent variable must precede (cause) the change in the dependant variable. There is a relationship between the two variables of substance abuse and mental health issues” (Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 75. It is not clear which variable preceds the other. “ The best way to control for threats to internal validity is to use a group for comparison with the study group, which strenghtens the study” (Faulkner & Faulkner, 2014, pg. 76). Faulkner S. & Faulkner, C. (2014) . Research Methods for Social Workers. A Practice Based Approach. Lyceum Books Inc.
please write an essay similar to the one below..obviously not copy fro plagiarized rule :) APA format please. 1 page single space times roman font. use the same available reference at the end of the topic: External and Internal Validity, One goal of many research studies is to apply findings beyond the group from which they were drawn. Sampling is an important process in conducting research.
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Assignment ID
40721
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CREATED ON
September 7, 2016
COMPLETED ON
September 8, 2016
Price
$30
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December 9, 2016
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Great work
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She did a good job, thank you.