Name Instructor Course Date Lion Gate: Meet the Iron Artisans The Hittites were an Asian Minor people who were organized in some city-states scattered across the mountainous Anatolia plateau – currently Turkey – around 2000 BCE (Gates 146). The periods between 15th and 13th century BC were marked with constant wars pitting the Hittites against Egyptians Assyrians and the Mitanni for control of the near East. They shared with the Egyptians the hegemony of the Eastern world and their art reached its peak during this empire (Akurgal 9). Lion Gate was the formal entrance for dignitaries and important visitors to the fortified capital of Hattusa (Counts and Arnold 35). It details (together with other excavated art) how Hittites borrowed from aesthetics in their writing forms the massiveness of their structure and elements of their art. In return Hittites provided new tools for carving – especially iron – and relief techniques later used by superpowers like Assyrians and Persians. Works Cited Akurgal Ekrem. Ancient Civilizations and Ruins of Turkey. 2015. Counts Derek B and Bettina Arnold. The Master of Animals in Old World Iconography. Archaeolingua 2010. Gates Charles. Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt Greece and Rome. Taylor and Francis 2013. Johnston Sarah. Ancient Greek Divination. Blackwell 2008. Rossi Cesare and Flavio Russo. Ancient Engineers' Inventions: Precursors of the Present. 2017. Somervill Barbara A. Empires of Ancient Mesopotamia. Chelsea House 2010. Ward William H. The Seal Cylinders of Western Asia. Washington 1910. [...]
Essay will be at least 500 words and should include both content and form in the analysis. Titles should be properly identified and the essay option you choose should have a title itself. Submissions before the deadline can be resubmitted for a higher grade if needed. Be sure to include the title of the works you are citing and use your artistic vocabulary. This assignment is more involved than the others so far, so be sure to give this enough attention. As each successive civilization took control in the Near East they brought their own aesthetic to art and architecture but also built on the aesthetic that was already in existence. Aesthetics refers to the particular culture's idea of beauty. Lion Gate: Hittites had contact with ancient Egyptians as well as having an empire stretching from Turkey to the Mediterranean. They were noted for carving imposing gateways with realistic guardian animals. DO NOT CONFUSE THIS LION GATE WITH THE ONE COMING LATER IN MYCENAE. Ishtar Gate: Neo-Babylonians were the descendants to Hammurabi and the Babylonians who controlled the same geographical area as the Hittites and Assyrians before them. They were builders of sophisticated and intricately detailed architecture. Processions honoring their most important god, Marduk were frequent. Entrance to the Apadana of Darius and Xerxes: Persians expanded the previous area of the empire all the way to Iran and to the Aegean Islands. During this empire, rulers left governors in local areas that were tolerant of native customes and traditions. Palaces and citadels were reminders of "who" was in charge. Some artwork was even created in Egypt and then imported. Analyze what was retained and what was added.