Studybay uses cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. By continuing to use Studybay you accept our use of cookies view more on our Cookie Policy
How can I earn money with StudyBay Top writers
Order Assignment
This order has already been completed on Studybay
On Studybay you can order your academic assignment from one of our 45000 professional writers. Hire your writer directly, without overpaying for agencies and affiliates! Check price for your assignment
15 total offers received. Writer hired: Giftedhands94

English Language - Anthropology , Coursework

Create a thread with your name as the title. In your post, answer the discussion question(s) posed in this week's professor's notes. They will be graded on the extent to which they a) answer the question, b) appropriately utilize anthropological terms and concepts, and c) demonstrate an understanding of the material in the notes. Read it, and for this week’s discussion board activity do the following: a) synopsize Dr. Talhelm’s hypothesis as to why these cultural differences exist, and b) discuss your own experiences and/or observations about these two orientations, based on yourself and/or your family and friends. Note that one is not better or worse than the other – they’re just different cultural orientations. One useful way to think about culture is to remember that culture is to humans as water is to fish. Think about the ways in which this is true. First of all, culture is adaptive. It helps humans to survive and thrive. In fact, it is absolutely critical for our survival, just as water is the necessary medium for fish. Other primates – monkeys and apes – also have culture, but humans rely on it far more. We are surrounded by the products of our culture, and we think in terms of our culture. The language itself is cultural. Culture is such an integral aspect of being human that we do not even really know what it would be like for a human to think without it. Secondly, we are surrounded by culture. Look at the things surrounding you – computer, notebook, desk, walls – these are all products of culture. Culture is, in fact, like the water in which a fish swims in that the fish moves through it – culture is the medium in which humans exist just as water is the medium in which fish live. However, another aspect of this is that fish don’t know they’re in the water. Likewise, we often take our own cultures for granted. We don’t give a second thought to the way we greet our friends, the way we answer the phone, how we dress in the morning, etc., until we are taken out of our cultural context. When a fish is taken out of the water and it’s flapping desperately on the ground, then it knows what it’s missing. Likewise, we often do not think about our own culture until it is juxtaposed against one that is very different. Everyone has a culture. Not everyone realizes that they do, though. If Fred gets up in the morning and turns on the TV, and someone comes on the TV and asks “What’s your culture?”, Fred may think that he doesn’t have one. But the very act of having a TV, turning it on, and watching it is cultural. Fred might say “That’s not culture. It’s just a normal part of life.” But what’s “normal” is relative to one’s culture. When TV was first introduced to the Piraha people of Brazil a relatively short time ago, they found it quite extraordinary and spent quite a bit of time watching the one, shared village TV in the company of their friends and family. They might be very surprised to learn that Fred has a TV all to himself, that he watches it first thing in the morning, and that he watches it by himself. The phenomenon of thinking that one’s own way of life and thinking is normal for everyone else on the planet is called naive realism, and it is the result of lack of exposure to other cultures. It’s an understandable mistake to make, but it is a mistake. For example, if one was born and raised in the United States, with little to no exposure to anything other than U.S. macroculture (the definition of this term comes in a couple of paragraphs), one might think that everyone in the world wants to stand out from the crowd and be recognized for their individual achievements. This is often the case of Americans, because U.S. macroculture is highly geared toward individualism. However, many other cultures in the world are group oriented. I’ve experienced the difference between these two orientations not only in my travels, but with my own parents, who are now both elderly. My mother is American-born Chinese, born and raised in a Chinatown, with Cantonese as her first language. My father is a fourth-generation American of European descent. If they go to a restaurant and get a bad meal, my mother will never, ever complain, and she will get upset at my father if he tries to. My mother thinks that it is better to put up with some unpleasant experiences in order to maintain social harmony; this is a group- oriented way of thinking. My father, on the other hand, is apt to complain (when he’s not with my mother, at least). His is a more individualistic orientation – one’s individual rights often, but not always, take precedence over social harmony. At the end of these notes, I’ve attached an Op-Ed piece from the anthropologist Tanya Luhrman that addresses this topic. Read it, and for this week’s discussion board activity do the following: a) synopsize Dr. Talhelm’s hypothesis as to why these cultural differences exist, and b) discuss your own experiences and/or observations about these two orientations, based on yourself and/or your family and friends. Note that one is not better or worse than the other – they’re just different cultural orientations. Now let’s say that Fred realizes that he’s a naive realist, so he vows to change this by going out into the world to experience other cultures. He flies to Malaysia where he is instantly surrounded by a plethora of different sights, smells, and sounds. At first he is entranced by the beauty of the place and thinks it’s the best place in the world; he even considers moving there. Then someone greets him in a language that he doesn’t understand, and they extend their right hand to shake his but they place their left hand on the inside of their forearm while doing so. Fred is confused by this gesture, not knowing that it’s the formal way that Malays shake hands. Then he has to relieve himself but when he enters the toilet stall, all he finds is a hole in the ground and a bucket of water and a ladle next to it (in some rural areas of Southeast Asia, it is still more common to squat than to sit on a toilet, and people clean themselves with water rather than with paper). He hears the call to prayer being played over the loudspeaker at a nearby mosque, and is startled; even moreso when he sees several men place their prayer mats on the ground and kneel, all facing in the same direction. Fred is experiencing a real, psychological phenomenon called culture shock, of which there are three stages. The first is the honeymoon stage, which is usually the result of the excitement and anticipation of visiting a new place. This may last a few days or weeks before the distress stage kicks in, which is often the result of confusion over social norms, isolation, and homesickness. The length of this stage depends on one’s behavior. If Fred were to stay in his hotel room for the remainder of the trip because he was too anxious about making a faux pas in a social situation, then he would never get over it. If he lived there, he might become seriously depressed. If, however, Fred is able to figure out the basics so that things like social interactions and toilet customs no longer cause him stress, then he will enter the re-integration stage, which is the final stage of culture shock. Let’s say that Fred stays in Malaysia long enough to learn that he really does love it, and he decides to move there. Being from California, Fred was enculturated into his home culture (that word is in your textbook). But here he is in a different culture, and he’s going to be learning the ropes for a while. The process that he will experience, as someone who already has one culture but is learning a second, is called acculturation. Most everyone will acculturate to another culture at some point in their lives, and you don’t have to travel across the world to do it. One of the characteristics of culture is that it is shared by groups of people, or societies. We can speak of the population of the U.S.A. as a society and, as such, we all share a culture. For example, TV and fast food are very common parts of U.S. culture. Even if you don’t watch TV or eat fast food, you may have at some point in your life and, anyway, you know enough about them to know their roles in American life. This overarching culture that is shared by a large population is called a macroculture; in this case, the macroculture of the United States. However, there are many small divisions of society in the United States, and each has its own culture. There are cultures of college students, Starbucks employees, cis women, cis men, ethnic groups, the military, New Yorkers, skateboarders, Republicans, millennials, LGBT people, gamers, and on and on. These are all societies that share their own microculture within the United States. As you can see, microculture may be based on religion, ethnicity, geography, work, religion, gender, age, interests, or hobbies. Let’s get back to Fred. He might acculturate to Malay culture so completely that he gives up his first culture. He might adopt the style of dress, become a Muslim, marry a Malay lady, have his named changed, limit his diet to halal foods, speak only in Malay, and start thinking and behaving as a Malay person thinks and behaves. In this case, we’d say that he has assimilated into Malay culture. When assimilation happens, it is at the expense of one’s first culture. One can acculturate, however, and be bicultural. Sometimes assimilation happens without much thought because it happens over the course of time as a result of being surrounded by a particular culture. Sometimes, however, it is forced, as in the case of the boarding schools that American Indian children were forced to attend, where they were made to speak, dress, and act like Anglo-Americans. In the late 1800s, the U.S. government agency, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), founded boarding schools for Native American children, with the intent to educate and assimilate the children into Anglo-American culture. The schools were often far from the children’s homes, meaning that they could not return home at the end of the day or even on weekends. Some children did not see their families for years after being sent to boarding school. The schools were mandatory for children living on reservations. When they arrived at the schools, they would be dressed in Anglo-American clothing, the boys’ hair would be cut, and their education would include training in manual labor. They were Christianized, only allowed to speak English, and often brutally treated. They were responsible for much of the school’s upkeep, and the Meriam Report of 1928 cited overwork, in addition to overcrowding, poor nutrition, and poor sanitary conditions, as contributing factors to the death rate that was six and a half times higher for Native American students than for those of other ethnic groups. It was expected that, after their schooling, individuals would return to their families and spread Anglo-American culture to them. The fact that the children had been separated from their families for so long and were now culturally different resulted in the fragmenting of many Native American families. Another characteristic of culture is that it may be tacit or explicit. This means that culture may be something that you are aware of (explicit) or not (tacit). If someone with a different culture than yours were to say “tell me about your culture,” the things you could tell them are culturally explicit. For example, many Americans believe that it is appropriate for women to wear dresses but not for men to do so. Regardless of whether we believe that this is how it should be, we still recognize that, generally, men do not wear dresses in our culture. This is explicit cultural knowledge because if you saw a man wearing a dress a school or work, you’d notice it. You probably would not just scratch your head and say “There’s something different about this scenario, but I can’t place my finger on what it is.” On the other hand, if you saw your good friend and stopped to chat with her, but she stood five feet away from you rather than the three feet that is typical in U.S. macroculture, you might come away from that interaction thinking that your friend seemed “standoff-ish” but you might not consciously know why she seemed that way. Speaking distance is often tacit cultural knowledge, except that we are more apt to notice when someone is standing too close as opposed to too far away. The distance at which individuals stand when speaking to one another varies by culture. One’s personal space averages between 2 and 4 feet in U.S. macroculture, while “intimate space” is a foot or closer. However, in Saudi Arabia, their social space equates with U.S. macroculture’s intimate space. If an American and a Saudi were interacting without knowing these cultural differences, the American might think the Saudi is “pushy” while the Saudi might think the American is “standoffish.” On the other hand, in the Netherlands the roles would be reversed, as their personal space is closer to U.S. macroculture’s social space (4 to 10 feet). Another important characteristic of culture, and the last one that I will address, is that culture always changes. This is important because sometimes we are led to believe that indigenous cultures don’t change. I don’t know how many times I’ve been watching a program about an indigenous culture and have heard the narrator say something like “and they live exactly as their ancestors did thousands of years ago.” The great likelihood is that, no matter who they are, their culture has changed in at least some fashion over the course of time. Culture must change because, remember, it is adaptive. Environmental and social conditions change, so culture must change, too. The point that those programs are usually trying to make is that those cultures have changed at a slower pace and less than industrialized ones have. The natural pace of culture change is pretty slow. When culture changes too quickly, as it has in our modern, post-industrial society, there are usually negative ramifications. For example, some segments of society may be left out of the benefits of the change because they cannot keep pace with it. Most of you probably know an elder who cannot use a cell phone or a computer. What if an elderly person wanted to take a college course? The very fact that they’d have to go online to register and would likely have to use a platform such as Canvas, even in a face-to-face class, may well dissuade them from even trying. In our society, much of the culture change that we now experience is top-down, meaning that we are affected by it but we do not generate it ourselves. Rather, it usually comes from corporate and government sources. This leaves people with a sense of helplessness and instability which is manifest in the plethora of social ills that we see in our society today.
Create a thread with your name as the title. In your post, answer the discussion question(s) posed in this week's professor's notes. They will be graded on the extent to which they a) answer the question, b) appropriately utilize anthropological terms and concepts, and c) demonstrate an understanding of the material in the notes.
Assignment ID
371969
CREATED ON
23 January 2018
COMPLETED ON
25 January 2018
Price
$40
This order has already been completed on Studybay
On Studybay you can order your academic assignment from one of our 45000 professional writers. Hire your writer directly, without overpaying for agencies and affiliates!
Check price for your Coursework
Critical analysis
Coursework, English Language
Price 40 $
Critical thinking
Coursework, English Language
Price 40 $
Assignment 1, milestone 1 submission: writing plan draft
Coursework, English Language
Price 40 $
Hw
Coursework, English Language
Price 40 $
The great gatsby
Coursework, English Language
Price 40 $
How to respond to your classmates' work
Coursework, English Language
Price 40 $
Professional experience #1
Coursework, English Language
Price 40 $
Professional email message
Coursework, English Language
Price 40 $
Essay 2 work shop
Coursework, English Language
Price 40 $
Journal: importance of analysis
Coursework, English Language
Price 40 $
English language arts
Coursework, English Language
Price 40 $
Studybay assignment progress timeline
Studybay is a freelance platform where you can order a English Language - Anthropology , Coursework paper, written from scratch by professors and tutors.
23 January 2018
User posted an order for English Language
23 January 2018
15 writers responded and offered to do the job for a price between $25 and $25
23 January 2018
User contacted writer Giftedhands94
23 January 2018
User hired writer Giftedhands94
25 January 2018
Writer completed order English Language - Anthropology , Coursework for 2 days, meeting the deadline
25 January 2018
User accepted the job right away and completed the payment
25 January 2018
User left a positive review
Defining what is a system
Need to deal with a writing assignment on what is a system ? Here, you will find essential information to get your paper perfectly written!
Getting familiar with what is a histogram
Trying to find out what is a histogram ? Look for the common definition and understandable explanation of the term right here!
Should Euthanasia Or Physician Assisted Suicide Be Legal Viewpoint Essay
Philosophy Euthanasia is one of the biggest controversies in our time and has become a major issue in today's society. This question isn't about allowing...
Skills And Knowledge For Successful System Development Information Technology Essay
Information Technology There is no doubt that information system analyst is participating in an extremely important role in almost all of the successful...
Other assignments in this discipline
Banquo from macbeth extended monologue
Essay, English Language
Price 30 $.
Assignment
Other types, English Language
Price 40 $.
How to bake cookies
Outline, English Language
Price 30 $.
Positives of youth sports
Essay, English Language
Price 30 $.
Book report
Speech / Presentation, English Language
Price 30 $.
Book report powerpoint
Speech / Presentation, English Language
Price 30 $.
Write to learn
Coursework, English Language
Price 40 $.
Narrative argument about education
Essay, English Language
Price 30 $.
Argumentation essay on smoking in public places
Essay, English Language
Price 30 $.
Discussion board week 1
Essay, English Language
Price 30 $.
English / barajas
Essay, English Language
Price 30 $.