PEN-3 Model Application in Reviewing Diabetes among African Americans Name Institution PEN-3 Model Application in Reviewing Diabetes among African Americans Introduction For the past decade there is a dramatic increase in the accessible evidence regarding culture influence on health (Iwelunmor et al. Newsome & Airhihenbuwa 2014). Apparently this aspect illustrates not just an extensive and rising concentration in the impact of culture however it points out to a clear recognition of its significance in dealing with health literacy designing and executing effective and proper interventions on public health and eliminating health disparities. Nonetheless this change calls for a clear proof on the effects of culture to health. In this context culture implies the shared norms codes and values that collectively define group's behavior belief and attitude via their contact with the location (Swierad Vartanian & King 2017). Exploring the cultural impact on a person’s health shows that the forest J. E. Parker S. & Thompson A. (2010). “Application of the PEN-3 model in a diabetes prevention intervention.” Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice Vol. 4 No. 1: 26-41 Iwelunmor J. Newsome V. & Airhihenbuwa C. O. (2014). Framing the impact of culture on health: a systematic review of the PEN-3 cultural model and its application in public health research and interventions. Ethnicity & Health 19(1) 20-46. doi:10.1080/13557858.2013.857768 Jack L. (2003). Diabetes Self-Management Education Research: An International Review of Intervention Methods Theories Community Partnerships and Outcomes. Disease Management & Health Outcomes 11(7) 415-428. James D. S. (2004). Factors Influencing Food Choices Dietary Intake and Nutrition-Related Attitudes among African Americans: Application of a Culturally Sensitive Model. Ethnicity & Health 9(4) 349-367. doi:10.1080/1355785042000285375 Swierad E. M. Vartanian L. R. & King M. (2017). The Influence of Ethnic and Mainstream Cultures on African Americans' Health Behaviors: A Qualitative Study. Behavioral Sciences (2076-328X) 7(3) bs7030049. doi:10.3390/bs7030049 [...]
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