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Name Professor Date Literature Review Are high school drop-out rates among minorities indication of a future life of crime? There is a rich literature bank on determinants of future life of crime among the youth with varying conclusions and mixed results. An investigation on a number of criminals’ past life history with regard to education and employment reveals that low education levels hence unemployment significantly affect the criminal numbers (YILDIZ et al p.37). Fella (p.1513) in an attempt to reduce crime applied a life cycle model comprising of endogenous education and choices of crime. It was found that targeting crime reduction by increasing high school graduation rates was found to be a more efficient and effective way to prevent and control future crime. In a study to investigate the relationship of mandatory attendance through different ages jurisdictions and school quality throughout the nation by using census data uniform crime High School Journal 290-315. Lochner L. (2007). Education and crime. In P. Peterson E. Baker & B. McGraw (Eds.) International encyclopedia of education (3rd ed.). Oxford UK: Academic Press; Elsevier. Maynard B. R. Salas-Wright C. P. & Vaughn M. G. (2014 July 17). High School Dropouts in Emerging Adulthood: Substance Use Mental Health Problems and Crime. Community Mental Health Journal 51 289-299. Retrieved July 11 2016. Terrell F. Miller A. Foster K. Watkins E. (2006). Racial Discrimination-Induced Anger and Alcohol Use Among Black Adolescents. Criminal Justice Database. 41:163 YILDIZ Rifat Oguz OCAL and Ertugrul YILDIRIM. "The Effects Of Unemployment Income And Education On Crime: Evidence From Individual Data." International Journal Of Economic Perspectives 7.2 (2013): 32-40. Business Source Complete. Web. 25 July 2016. Fella Giulio and Giovanni Gallipoli. "Education And Crime Over The Life Cycle." Review Of Economic Studies 81.4 (2014): 1484-1517. Business Source Complete. Web. 25 July 2016. [...]

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This is what I have and needs to work on editing this and adding to it (if any of theatricals you found for the article search works, add it!). The expectation to make several substantive posts. Please just make your edits and additions to the following: The spaces between paragraphs are only there for the time being. Work on getting rid of them. If you have questions, let me know. And please color code so I know what you added. Thank you. Literature Review Are high school drop-out rates among minorities indication of a future life of crime? Lochner and Moretti, (2003) assert that for every year of high school, individuals are significantly less likely to be incarcerated. Deterrents from crime include structure, education creates higher wages and influence from the setting. The study examined the relationship of mandatory attendance through different ages, jurisdictions and school quality throughout the nation by using census data, uniform crime reports and self-reporting data. The results suggest that for each additional year of education beginning at the ninth grade through grade twelve there was a negative correlation with a person’s susceptibility toward future incarceration. The authors further indicate that a 1% increase in the male graduation rate could result in a savings of 1.4 billion dollars. Findings also show that incarceration rates are substantially higher for blacks than for whites. Limitations of the study include failure to include consideration of poverty, failing school systems, and external social factors. Maynard et al. survey individuals between the ages of 18 – 25 who have dropped out of high school. The survey attempts to assess if there is a connection to dropping out of high school with increased substance use, mental health and criminal behavior. By incorporating early interventions to reduce dropout rates, society can reduce dropout costs to society, projected at $240,000 per person. According to this study, high school dropouts were predominantly minority male with low income levels of less than twenty thousand dollars. Dropouts were also less likely to be employed full or part-time and have a higher propensity to be arrested for criminal behavior. The study suggests cost-effective early interventions to address non-academic problems coupled with those implemented in the school setting, in order to improve general health of the population. Terrell, Miller, Foster, and Watkins (2006) suggest there is a connection between anger and alcohol consumption by black adolescents experiencing racial discrimination. The use of alcohol is presenting as a way to cope with feelings of anxiety, unacceptance, and anger brought on by racial discrimination. Black adolescents are the choice of focus because they are more likely to be exposed to racial discriminations than other adolescents belonging to other ethnic groups. (Terrell, Miller, Foster, Watkins, 2006). The study examined the relationship between anger induced by racial discrimination and alcohol dependence through three questionnaires measuring the use and dependency on alcohol to express and deal with emotional situations and the level of anger towards white’s for racial discrimination. Using the CAGE (cut down, annoyed, guilty, eye opener) screening, results did not reveal predictors of alcohol dependency for the age group. However, age and gender were found to be predictors of the number of drinks consumed. Male adolescents were shown to consume more along with the older portion of the surveyed group. Anger-induced by racial discrimination was also found to be a significant indicator of drinking behaviors. Those feeling higher levels of anger tend to drink more heavily than those who felt less angry. The findings would prove to support the claim that there is a relationship between alcohol use and anger induced by racial discrimination. The study is only reflective of the black population and would be interesting to conduct on other cultural and ethnic groups. Education engages people in socialization, which may result in their desire for criminal activity to be deterred. However, criminal activities can also be learned or refined with education; which can present itself with white collar crimes. Education or job skill training is important from the aspect of lower wage rates and unemployment rates increase, crime also increases. Having an education offers opportunity for higher wages and one is less likely to be unemployed, which can reduce post-education criminal activity. This however may not be the case with white collar crime such as embezzlement, fraud and forgery where the reward for crime may be higher than the wages gained with education. The situation can be similar for youth. Those who finish high school are learning and socializing, many anticipating either college or working, in both situations, having a completed high school education then later, a college education, youth can anticipate higher wages, which can lower their probability to commit crimes. Empirical literature also shows a strong negative correlation between education and crime, showing lower crime rates among those have completed high school and those who have not; showing 7% lower rate of crime committed for financial gain. While previous studies have found no significant association between crime (after controlling several individual characteristics) and educational attainment, Lochner (2007) cautions these findings need to be interpreted with caution since this does not “necessarily imply education reduces crime”. Recidivism, one would reason would be reduced by prisoners receiving education while incarcerated, much like education in the traditional manner. However there are few empirical studies on this topic and there could be great difficulty in comparing prisoners who chose to enroll and those who chose not to enroll in prison education programs due to characteristic differences (Lochner, 2007). When we think of crime we cannot help but revert back to ones juvenile past. Two questions that comes to mind is did the individual complete high school, and is there a correlation between the dropout rates, low attendance and bad behavior? Doctors Freeman, Simonsen, McCoacn, Sugai, Lombardi and Horner all from the University of North Carolina, sampled 600-800 high schools across 37 states over a seven year period who have implemented a School-wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports (SWPBIS). The results indicates that those schools where the SWPBIS intervention was in place, saw a marginally statistical reduction in dropout rates. Though this article focuses on attendance and dropout rates showing that high absenteeism is a significant risk factor for dropping out (Freeman, et al., 2015), the author believes that low attendance resulting in dropping out and the bad behavior that associates from not being in school, has the potential to lead to criminal activity. Works Cited Freeman, J., Horner, R., Lombardi, A., McCoach, B. D., Simionsen, B., & Sugai, G. (2015). An Analysis of the Relationship Between Implementation of School-wide Positive Behavior Interventions, and Supports and High School Dropout Rates. The High School Journal, 290-315. Lochner, L. (2007). Education and crime. In P. Peterson, E. Baker & B. McGraw (Eds.), International encyclopedia of education (3rd ed.). Oxford, UK: Academic Press; Elsevier. Maynard, B. R., Salas-Wright, C. P., & Vaughn, M. G. (2014, July 17). High School Dropouts in Emerging Adulthood: Substance Use, Mental Health Problems, and Crime. Community Mental Health Journal, 51, 289-299. Retrieved July 11, 2016. Terrell, F., Miller, A., Foster, K., Watkins, E., (2006). Racial Discrimination-Induced Anger and Alcohol Use Among Black Adolescents. Criminal Justice Database. 41:163

Subject Area: Literature

Document Type: Term paper

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Words 550

Pages 2

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07.25.2016

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