Student’s Name Professor Course Title Date of Submission Ethics of Using Genetically Engineered and Cloned Food Introduction Genetic engineering is a science of modifying or altering and organism genetic makeup. This is done with tools and techniques from biotechnology and bioengineering. This process involves removal of DNA matters from one species of the animal and inserts it to another animal of same species or different species. A transgenic organism is able to express these genes because the protein gene sequences are similar among them. When a gene is obtained it is altered so that it can be expressed and it functions effectively in the host organisms. In genetic modification various laboratory and industrial techniques are applied in combining the DNA of different species and genes together. This is aimed at altering the genetic constitution of an organism. The living organism made out of altered DNA is referred to as Botzler eds. The animal ethics reader. Taylor & Francis 2016. Bawa A. S. and K. R. Anilakumar. "Genetically modified foods: safety risks and public concerns—a review." Journal of food science and technology 50.6 (2013): 1035-1046. Bruce Donald. Engineering genesis: ethics of genetic engineering in non-human species. Routledge 2014. Church George M. et al. "Realizing the potential of synthetic biology." Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 15.4 (2014): 289-294. Ishii Tetsuya. "Genome-edited livestock: Ethics and social acceptance." Animal Frontiers 7.2 (2017): 24-32. Mora Cristina et al. "Factors affecting the adoption of genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains." Bio-based and Applied Economics 1.3 (2012): 313-329. Niemann H. and A. Lucas‐Hahn. "Somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning: practical applications and current legislation." Reproduction in domestic animals 47.s5 (2012): 2-10. Vàzquez-Salat Núria et al. "The current state of GMO governance: Are we ready for GM animals?." Biotechnology advances 30.6 (2012): 1336-1343. WHO | 20 questions on genetically modified foods. (n.d.). Retrieved September 27 2012 from http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/20questions/en/ [...]
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