CREATED ON 9th May 2016
COMPLETED ON 9th May 2016
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Linguistic Anthropology Assignment- due in 9 hours

CHOOSE ONE QUESTION AND ANSWER IT FULLY using at least 4 articles from the class readings covered by this exam. Be sure to include a reference page listing the articles you use. It is due at the time of the in-class portion of the final exam. This part of the exam is worth 20 points. 1. Jaffe says, “Performances do not simply address audiences, but define and constitute an audience (who counts as an audience) as well as that audience’s esthetic and cultural authority.” Using at least 4 articles as references, discuss the following: what are performance, acts of identity, and hybrid identity? How does historical context informs meaning? How can multilingualism be used to affect an audience? 2. How are children socialized through the use of language, and to use language appropriately? Describe, compare and contrast the socialization strategies used in at least four cultures. FORMAT Include the following in your typed answer: A. Cover Page 1. The number of the question you are answering, and the question itself. 2. Your name 3. Class name and number B. Your answer should be as long as you need to answer the question. There is no limit to how short it can be (and it should be no longer than 6 pages), just as long as it sufficiently answers the question. C. References List the references that you cite in the text of your answer on a separate Reference Page at the end of your essay. Articles to sift through and analyze: Young, “Inscrutability Revisited.” Links some overarching arguments about what is means to be culturally Chinese, with examples from language, such as the preference toward harmonious social relationships, and how speakers transfer from one cultural experience to another through second language use, leading to stereotyped attitudes. What are the differences in discourse style between English and Chinese speakers, in terms of basic sentence types and some discourse strategies? Yule, “Politeness and Face” Bailey, “Communication of Respect” (Duranti, Ch 4). What are some of the differences between African Americans and Korean Americans in terms of how respect is communicated or miscommunicated? What does Bailey mean by “restraint politeness” and “involvement politeness”? Why does the author include an analysis of how Korean clerks interacted with Korean customers? Scollon & Scollon "Athabaskan-English Interethnic Communication": Know what a "discourse system" is, according to the authors. Four areas of discourse study comparing English-speaking Athabaskans compared with Anglo English speakers. How does culture affect each one? 1) presentation of self, 2) distribution of talk, 3) Information structure, 4) content organization. Hill, “Language, Race and White Public Space” (Duranti, Ch 20). What are the characteristics of Mock Spanish, and why does Hill consider it an example of racist discourse? What does Hill mean by “white linguistic normalcy” and “white public sphere”? How do these concepts help to explain the differentiated meaning of language choice among whites and members of linguistic minority groups? Miller "Verbal Listening Behavior in conversations Between Japanese and Americas": Know what aizuchi is and what the interethnic problems are with regard to aizuchi when Americans are speaking Japanese. Example of questions to ask yourself: What is aizuchi? What did the "hiss" mean to the Japanese boss, and to the American worker? Why was the translator viewed as a kind/warm person in terms of aizuchi? Hint: There were great data segments in this article that could be used for questions. Bunte & Franklin "You Can't Get There From Here: Southern Paiute Testimony as Intercultural Communication": What were the two cultural views of how historical information could/should be conveyed? How did context matter in this case? How were social roles important in this conception of conveyance of information? What role did language and cultural subgroups play in cultural transmission in the courtroom? How is giving directions a cultural matter? How are time and quantity cultural issues? Wiley and Lukes, “English-Only and Standard English Ideologies in the US”: What is the status of English in the US? What are the two major language ideologies in the US, and how do they function as gate-keepers to success? Jaffe, “Comic Performance and the Articulation of Hybrid Identity.” What is verbal art? What is performance, according to Jaffe? What are "acts of identity"? What is a hybrid identity? How does one perform French versus Corsican versus merged identities? How does the historical context inform meaning? Why are routines used by comics sometimes funny to audiences and sometimes not? Meaning of "Coco ça va?" Key of performances? Or Keys of performances? What does Jaffe mean by "Performances do not simply address audiences, but define and constitute an audience (who counts as an audience) as well as that audience's esthetic and cultural authority."? [This would make a great exam question.] Basso "Stalking with stories': Names, places and moral narratives among the Western Apache". What kind of narrative is Basso most concerned with? What do Apaches mean when they state that certain places stalk them? Be able to point out stories and incidents from the article that help you explain this concept (or to be able to respond to a question about this). How did Basso decide to study stories? What place names account for the majority of place names? In what genre of talk are place names most important (e.g., myth, sagas, etc.)? What does the title mean – stalking with stories? Alim, “Hip Hop Nation” (Duranti Ch 11). What are the four primary elements of Hip Hop Nation? What does Alim mean by the expression “language ideology?” What role does the performance of “Signifying” and “Call and Response” play in HHN? What is the relationship of HHN language to general AAVE? Irvine, “Insult and responsibility: Verbal abuse in a Wolof village”. What role do insults play in social interactions in this village? Why must an insulter have an “out” in terms of taking personal responsibility for insulting someone? What are some of the strategies people use to provide themselves with an out? What role is played by the griots in this type of strategy? Why are insults in the form of a performance a part of weddings? Ochs & Schieffelin, “Language Acquisition and Socialization” (Duranti Ch 12). Understand the two processes of language socialization: socialization to language and socialization through language. Why were ethnographic methodologies required to conduct this type of research? Have a basic understanding of the three “developmental stories” discussed in the article. What are the features of the two types of accommodation that adults use when they communicate with children (child-centered, or adapting the situation to the child, and situation-centered, or adapting the child to the situation)? Clancy, “The acquisition of communicative style in Japanese” What are the communicative styles of the Japanese, and how do they correlate with their cultural values? What specific strategies do mothers use with their children at various ages to shape their communicative competence, in terms of how much speech is to be used, listening and responding conventions, directives, conformity training, and saying no? Light, “Language Socialization in a Mainstream American Family” Be familiar with the strategies mainstream white Americans use to socialize their children, and how they differ from those of other cultures Heath, “What No Bedtime Story Means” (Duranti Ch 14) What does Heath mean by “ways of taking” in information? How is this concept used to describe the differences among the three communities she studied? What is a “literacy event,” and how do the three communities differ in their use and, consequently, in literacy skills among the children? Understand how the book-reading strategies of the mainstream white community relate to classroom literacy practices. Attached are some of the files, you can find the rest on this website:,1,5,B/frameset&FF=plight+linda&2,,5 password is anth413
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