Biology Questions Name: Institutional Affiliations: Tetrad Formation Process Tetrad formation begins during the first phase of meiosis. During prophase 1 homologous chromosomes condense and obtain an x-shaped structure. During this stage the homologous chromosomes can be seen through a microscope. Genetic exchange of materials between the two chromosomes occurs through a process known as cross-over (Vaboliene & Brazenaite 2009). As a result x-shaped chromosomes are formed and later divide into two cells with unique genetic composition different from that of the parent chromosome. Red Green Color Blindness Human beings have a total of 23 pairs of chromosomes. Out of these chromosomes one pair is responsible for the determination of a person’s sex. A person with two X-chromosomes is a woman while a person with both the X and Y chromosome is referred to as male. Re color blindness occurs as not genetically identical mitosis results in identical cells. The Structure of Complementary Base Pairing Of DNA The human DNA is a double helix of two anti-parallel complementary strands with phosphate –sugar backbone. Inside phosphate sugar backbone is a nitrogenous base. The DNA is comprised of nucleotides that contain a nitrogenous base deoxyribose sugar and a phosphate group (Seeman 2003). These compounds make up the composition of the human DNA and are joined together by a weak hydrogen bond. References Charlesworth D. Charlesworth B. & Marais G. (2005). Steps in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Heredity 95(2) 118. Seeman N. C. (2003). DNA in a material world. Nature 421(6921) 427-432. Vabolienė G. & Bražėnaitė J. (2009). Tetrad-forming-organism-dependent deterioration of enhanced biological phosphorus removal in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant. Ekologija 55(3-4) 231-236. Wong B. (2011). Points of view: Color blindness. nature methods 8(6) 441-441. [...]
Format your paper according to APA guidelines. please cite all references. Minimum of 100 word per questions. 1. Describe the process that results in the formation of a tetrad? 2. Can a human male be a carrier of red green color blindness? 3. Explain how the Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance helped to advance our understanding of genetics? 4.Explain Griffith's transformation experiments. What did he conclude from them? 5. Provide a brief summary of the Sanger sequencing method? 6.What are Okazaki fragments and how they are formed? 7.What is Meiosis and Mitosis? How are they different? Explain? 8.Describe the structure and complementary base pairing of DNA.