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INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT AND DECISION MAKING
Management is the art and science of coordinating the efforts of others toward the accomplishment of an organizational goal or mission. As such, management encompasses systems of reporting relationships, authority structures, communication systems, and decision-making practices. There are many roles that managers play. The background reading discusses the different levels of management and the types of contribution each level makes. The point is made that organizations are hierarchies and that hierarchies lend themselves to better organization and control.
However, sometimes hierarchies can become too inflexible and overly bureaucratic. The following clip from the movie “Catch 22” demonstrates how upper-level managers can embed policies into organizations with little considerations of their effects “downstream”. As you watch this video, take some notes of examples you see of the following:
Rules, policies, and procedures
Conflict between individual goals and management goals
* Means-ends Inversion: the method of doing something becomes a goal in its own right, which displaces the end state (goal) that the method was supposed to achieve. wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/144/147825/WEBCH15.DOC.DOC
View the following video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5yeGMaT3PvI
Read the following article from the Trident University Library about the limitations of hierarchy:
Cable, J. (2012). For innovation to flourish, “Bureaucracy must die”. Industry Week/IW, 261(6), 54.
Hint: Just copy and paste the title of the article into the Library Access search box on the Trident University Portal page. Do not include the author’s name or publication; the article title is all you need.
After reading the above article, background material, and reviewing your notes on the video, consider the following questions:
Are there examples of “bureaupathology” (excessively bureaucratic behavior) in this scene?
What examples can you give?
Are there conflicts between Yosarian’s personal goals and those of the hierarchy?
Has the “means” displaced the desired ends (means-ends inversion)?
What do you predict would be the effect of this situation on the ability of all parties involved to be flexible and respond to challenges in an innovative manner?
Now, write a 3- to 4-page paper, not including the cover and reference list, discussing the film clip and the above questions. A good way to organize your paper would be to divide it into the following sections:
Introduction that briefly describes the situation depicted in the clip. (one paragraph)
A description of the rules and policies regarding the required number of missions and rotations, and why this is an example of bureaupathology.
How hierarchical decision-making can lead to means-ends inversion.
Commentary on a situation where you experienced means-ends inversion or excessive bureaucracy and how it affected your work, and your ability to be flexible and innovative in your approach to making decisions and solving problems.
A conclusion summarizing your main argument and suggesting one way that organizations can avoid the negative effects of hierarchy, and foster innovation.
Support your arguments with references to the background readings and use specific examples from the clip to illustrate your main points.
Turn in your assignment to the case Dropbox in TLC. Be sure to review your TurnItIn Originality report. If the score is over 20%, you may be copying too much material from the internet or other sources and you will need to contact your professor and arrange to revise and resubmit the paper.
Case reports are to be prepared in Microsoft Word and should be 3-4 pages in length, in addition to a cover page (course name and number, module number, session name, student name, and date prepared) and reference list - double-spaced, 12 pt. type, Times New Roman font.
Report content should include a brief introduction to the assignment, background information about the organization being studied, and some preliminary discussion of the concepts or theories being applied in addressing the questions or tasks proposed in the assignment. Use subtitles, bullets, and tables to improve presentation values. Attention is to be given to citing sources of information in-text (within the body of the paper) as well as in the end references section of your paper. In-text citation and end reference formatting instructions are available at https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/. Submit your report in the Case Dropbox for this module on or before the date due, as indicated at the TLC Homepage.
All case papers in this class will be evaluated using the criteria as stated in the Case rubric. The following is a review of the rubric criteria:
Assignment-Driven: Does the paper fully address all aspects of the assignment? Is the assignment addressed accurately and precisely using sound logic? Does the paper meet minimum length requirements?
Critical Thinking: Does the paper demonstrate graduate-level analysis, in which information derived from multiple sources, expert opinions, and assumptions has been critically evaluated and synthesized in the formulation of a logical set of conclusions? Does the paper address the topic with sufficient depth of discussion and analysis?
Business Writing: Is the essay logical, well organized and well written? Are the grammar, spelling, and vocabulary appropriate? Are section headings included? Are paraphrasing and synthesis of concepts the primary means of responding, or is justification/support instead conveyed through excessive use of direct quotations?
Effective Use of Information: Does the submission demonstrate that the student has read, understood, and can apply the background materials for the module? If required, has the student demonstrated effective research, as evidenced by student’s use of relevant and quality sources? Do additional sources used provide strong support for conclusions drawn, and do they help in shaping the overall paper?
Citing Sources: Does the student demonstrate understanding of APA Style of referencing, by inclusion of proper citations (for paraphrased text and direct quotations) as appropriate? Have all sources (e.g., references used from the Background page, the assignment readings, and outside research) been included, and are these properly cited? Have all sources cited in the paper been included on the References page?
(Citation and reference style instructions are available at https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/.)
Timeliness: Has the assignment been submitted to TLC (Trident’s learning management system) on
INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT AND DECISION MAKING
Management is the art and science of coordinating the efforts of others toward the accomplishment of an organizational goal or mission. As such, management encompasses systems of reporting relationships, authority structures, communication systems, and decision-making practices. There are many roles that managers play.