Periodontitis Gum Disease (Porphyroomonas gingivalis)
CASE STUDY INSTRUCTIONS AND GUIDELINES Please review the Case Study Rubric on the Course Rubrics page in the Syllabus section of Content before you turn in your final project to ensure you know exactly how your final project will be evaluated. ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVE Through this assignment students will gain in-depth knowledge of a specific pathogen in which they are interested and communicate the information about this pathogen in a creative manner. The assignment will help students solidify their critical thinking, diagnostic and written communication skills. CREATING YOUR CASE INSTRUCTIONS You will create a novel case study about a person or persons who are sickened by a specific pathogen of your choosing. You will start by telling a short story about the person and his/her interactions with medical personnel. You will need to include enough information (hints) so that each type of diagnosis listed below (points 1-5) can be made and the case can be solved by one of your classmates and your instructor. The case story does not need to be more than a 2-3 paragraphs. At the end of your case story, you need to address the 7 points listed in the Types of Diagnoses and explain your reasoning based on the information you provided in your case story. This section should be written in prose. SUBMISSIONS OVERVIEW This assignment is broken up into 4 distinct parts that must be submitted by each of the due dates: Part 1: Submit the common and scientific name of infectious microorganism, the area of the body it affects (anatomical diagnosis) and the geographic locations in which the pathogen is found (part of the epidemiological diagnosis) to your instructor via the Module 1 Dropbox - Case Study Part 1 as a .docx file. Part 2: Submit a 1-paragraph summary how your pathogen can be visualized via the Module 2 Dropbox - Case Study Part 2 as a .docx file. What can be seen with the naked eye? If it is a bacteria that can be cultured, what does the culture look like? Which type of microscope is needed to see the organism? What stains are required to visualize or help classify the organism? List 2 diagnostic tests that can confirm an infection with your pathogen. Part 3: Submit a 1-paragraph summary to the Module 3 Dropbox - Case Study Part 3 as a .docx file. Include where and how the pathogen was contracted and how the growth or spread of your pathogen can be limited. What is the treatment for your pathogen? If there is no specific drug treatment, state that and explain why. Part 4: Submit your final case study paper to the Module 4 Dropbox - Case Study Part 4 as a .docx file. Editing and Correcting your final case study: Think about how this project will be received by an outside party unfamiliar with your specific topic. Use the following guidelines: Does your title reflect the focus and content? Does your whole project have a single focus? Review and ensure your spelling, grammar, word choice, etc. is correct Make sure your references are in correct APA style format. Types of Diagnoses Provide the pieces of information in the case that will allow your classmates to make the: Anatomical diagnosis and state what the possible diagnoses are. Differential diagnosis and state what the possible diagnoses are. Epidemiological diagnosis and state what the possible diagnoses are. Etiological diagnosis and explain 2 diagnostic tests that you would do to eliminate all of the microorganisms on your list except the 1 pathogen that is making your patient sick. State your Final diagnosis and the scientific name of the microorganism affecting your patient. Explain which type of microscope and the stains, or other treatments, are needed to visualize the microorganism. Describe in detail what the microorganism will look like under the microscope (shape, staining colors, etc). State the potential treatments for the infection and explain briefly how these treatments work. Read A Guide to the Diagnostic Process. SUGGESTED PROCESS This project may seem daunting. However, there are guidelines below to help you work through the process over the course of the semester. You should also view the powerpoint Using Critical Thinking Skills to Analyze Case Studies to help you complete this project. The first step you will need to complete is to select the pathogenic microorganism for your case. Then, you will work backward to add the necessary information as the topics are covered during the semester. Do not forget to ask for help from your instructor and the librarian if you need it. Step 1: Getting Started Start thinking about your case study at the start of the semester. What pathogen interests you? Is there a pathogen or infectious disease about which you would like to learn more? Has an infection or pathogen been in the news media lately? Or did you read an article in the past that interested you? If you work in a medical setting, has there been an interesting patient case or a condition about which you wanted to learn more? If none of these questions spark an interest, you may want to visit the Microbe World website which contains news, podcasts, videos, images and other information about a wide array of microorganisms, or visit the CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) website where you can find information on current disease outbreaks and fact pages about infectious diseases and the microbes that cause them. Spend a few minutes researching your pathogen of interest. Find out what part of the body the pathogen infects (the anatomical diagnosis). Think about how you would feel if you had the disease. What symptoms would you have? How would you communicate this to the medical personnel attending to you? The CDC website listed above can be used to review the symptoms of your infectious disease. Become familiar with case studies at the Medical Microbiology and Infection at a Glance website. Then create the protagonist of your case study and write a few sentences that explain his or her symptoms. Step 2: Collecting Information -- throughout the course There are 7 points you need to address in your assignment as listed above under the Types of Diagnoses header. Be sure to gather information to address that list. In some cases, the details for your specific pathogen are not in the textbook. However, at the end of each chapter, ask yourself what you learned that will allow you to research an element of the assignment effectively. For example, this semester you will learn about all different types of microscopy techniques, which you can apply to different types of microbes. Additionally, we will learn about many different diagnostic tests. Once you are familiar with this concept or others that we cover, you can research online to find out more about your specific pathogen. There are 3 summaries of the material you are collecting due throughout the semester. It will be helpful to write sections of your paper as you submit these summaries. At the very least, collect your notes in an electronic file. Do not leave writing the assignment to the last minute! Step 3: Finalizing Your Assignment Research differential diagnosis so you can learn about how other pathogens can infect the same anatomical region as your pathogen and the differences between pathogens. Become familiar with case studies and how to solve them using the aforementioned Medical Microbiology and Infection at a Glance website. Step 4: Final Case Study Paper Format Your paper will be 4 – 6 pages of written content. If there is extensive dialogue in your case study, you may obtain permission from your instructor for a longer paper if needed. This does not include the title page, illustrations or references. The paper will be double-spaced with 1-inch margins and it is recommended that you use the Tahoma font in 12 point size, or Verdana in 11 point size. The title page needs to include your name, the course name and your section, the title of your case study, and the date of submission. Remember, this page does not count toward the page requirement. You will present "the story" of your case first. Then, you will address the seven points listed above in the assignment details. At least one illustration or graphic representation of data needs to be included and cited properly in the paper. Remember, these items do not count toward your page requirement. References need to be included appropriately in the text and in a literature cited section at the end of the assignment. Remember, the literature cited section does not count toward your page requirement. HELPFUL TIPS The following are just some ideas. You are encouraged to add flavor to your case. Tell us about the patients and their lives, not just the specific details of their diseases. You may want to draw on information from your own personal experiences, news stories or your clients to enhance the case. You are encouraged to let your creative juices flow and have fun with this assignment. If you have questions or are struggling with the assignment, please contact your instructor. Try to bring your patient to life with small personal details and some dialogue with the clinician. Think about introducing information through discussion instead of just stating facts. This makes the case more fun and engaging. Example of bringing a scenario to life Nurse Adam: "Hello Janet, my daughter Beth said she had so much fun with you on the Girl Scout Campout at Fire Island two weeks ago. Thank you so much for all the time you put in as our troop leader." Janet: "Adam, it is my pleasure. I love hiking with the girls and they are so proud of themselves when they get the campfire started on their own." Nurse Adam: "So, Janet what brings you into the clinic today?" Example of weaving in clues needed to diagnose your pathogen If you selected Lyme's disease you want the case story to include that the patient could have been bitten by the ticks that carry Borrelia burgdorferi. Two weeks ago, Janet went on a backpacking trip with her Girl Scout troop on Fire Island. Why two weeks ago? The bull’s eye rash needed to develop, not resolve and be noticed by the patient. Why Fire Island? I used the internet to find a specific location where Lyme’s disease has been reported. Is there enough information provided to diagnose a single pathogen? Scenario Rosario’s two year old daughter, Catalina, has flares of diaper rash every so often. Usually, the rash resolves after a few days of treatment with over-the- counter creams for vaginal yeast infections. However, this doesn’t seem to be working for Catalina’s current rash. Rosario asks the pharmacist at the supermarket for advice. The pharmacist suggests a cream for athlete’s foot that he uses for his grandson. But, he tells Rosario to contact the pediatrician if the rash persists for more than three additional days. Luckily, the pharmacist’s recommendation cleared up Catalina’s rash quickly and a trip to the doctor was averted. Analysis The information presented could allow us to suggest a pathogen type, but not a specific pathogen. Make sure there are enough details in your case to allow for a complete diagnosis.