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History - History, Essay
Background: the Confederate States (Virginia, North and South Carolina, Kentucky, Alabama, Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Oklahoma and the Confederate Territory of Arizona) won the American Civil War due to Robert E. Lee’s victory at Gettysburg. On July 2nd Lee’s IV Corps under John Breckinridge swept around the Union left and captured Power’s Hill and the Union artillery reserve, turning the cannons on Cemetery Ridge; and George Meade’s Army of the Potomac was slaughtered. The remnants abandoned Philadelphia and were beaten at Monmouth, New Jersey. Ulysses S. Grant’s army was recalled to defend New York and the President, since President Abraham Lincoln was forced to abandon Washington, D.C. Lee captured Washington, Baltimore, Wilmington, and Delaware (and destroyed the DuPont Powder Works, which supplied the United States with gunpowder). In the Western Theater, Richard Taylor’s Army of Mississippi and Braxton Bragg’s Army of Tennessee came together and destroyed William Rosecrans’ Union Army of the Cumberland at Lexington, Kentucky, taking the Bluegrass State and “Egypt” (pro-Confederate Southern Illinois).
British Prime Minister Henry Palmerston, looking at the ruin of the British bond market (the British had invested heavily in U.S. war bonds) and opposed to slavery, offered to provide money to manumit slaves in both the United States and Confederate States under the threat of throwing British support to whoever agreed to British arbitration. Slavery was abolished in both North American Republics by amendments to both constitutions, and Davis and Lincoln, in a motion of reconciliation, agreed to celebrate Thanksgiving Day in both nations. The Treaty of Arlington was signed by both Presidents.
Under Presidents Lee and Longstreet, the Confederate States became a Great Power and annexed the Spanish West Indies (Santo Domingo, Cuba, Puerto Rico), and, as a result of the expulsion of the French from Mexico the C.S.A. gained Martinique and Guadeloupe, and the British islands of St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Dominica, the Marquesas Islands in the Pacific, and French Guiana in South America, which they exchanged with the Americans for the port of San Diego (San Diego, Riverside, and Imperial counties), as well as gaining access to the port of Ensenada in Baja California. In addition, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras joined the Confederacy following the War of the Liberals in 1885. The U.S.A. got the Danish West Indies (the American Virgin Islands) and nothing else (except French Guiana) due to Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner’s opposition to annexation of people of African-Caribbean descent. In the Spanish War, the Confederacy gave the United States Guam, Saipan, and Tinian in the Marianas Islands in exchange for an area of Los Angeles county stretching from Laguna Beach southward and including the Channel Islands.
The Samoan Crisis: The U.S. is now seeking its own colonial empire. Although many Americans view the Confederate States as a political and industrial rival and resent the loss of the Civil War, America has maintained the peace, since American capitalists have invested heavily in Confederate industry. Alaska has been bought from Russia but now the Americans want at least part of the Samoan Islands as a naval base and to establish the United States as a Great Power. Germany also claims these islands and has sent a small fleet of ships and troops to support their claimant to the High Chieftanship of the islands, Tumua Tamasese. German-led natives have killed American missionaries and the U.S. has sent a squadron of ships to face down the Germans. Confederate President Wade Hampton has offered American President Grover Cleveland military assistance; and the Confederacy possesses a modern Navy of considerable strength.
Now for the question: You are American Secretary of State Thomas Bayard and are writing a letter to President Cleveland offering advice, knowing that your Confederate counterpart, Secretary of State Pierre Beauregard, has expressed Confederate interest in Western Samoa, which the Germans want. You have three possible courses of action: 1) Hope that nothing happens and the crisis goes away; 2) Ask for Confederate assistance, and thus tip the balance in favor of the United States; or 3) Divide the islands with Germany or the Confederate States. In your letter to President Cleveland, examine each option and carefully lay out the consequences of each in terms of U.S. foreign policy goals. Recommend one of the options as your favorite and explain why. Remember that Cleveland is addressed as “Mr. President,” Hampton as “President Hampton,” and Beauregard as “Secretary of State Beauregard.”
Background: the Confederate States (Virginia, North and South Carolina, Kentucky, Alabama, Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Oklahoma and the Confederate Territory of Arizona) won the American Civil War due to Robert E. Lee’s victory at Gettysburg.