Impact of flexible working hours on employee turn-over
This is a business research on 'Impact of flexible working hours on employee turn-over' This is an academic research to create knowledge and 50%-60% of the dissertation may consist of academic writing, This research carried out in Book Publishing house called Wijesooriya Book Publishers, among the graphic designing and type setting staff.Wijesooriya Publishers based in Sri lanka. Population of Graphic designing and type setting staff is 40. Total word count -9,000-10,000 words Dissertation may have main components such as ; *Abstract - 300 word -An overview of the project aim, research design and the methods, findings, conclusion, and recommendations. *Table of contents /list of tables/ list of figures, * Introduction; 500 words -Background of the project -Justification -Identification of audience should consist Research Problem (high employee turnover), *Research aims, Objectives and project identification - 100 words - Clearly stated and logically derived aim and objectives -Clear statement of the nature of the research problem(high employee turn-over) *Research strategy and information/ Rational -in rational include what will happen if we don't do the research / why its important - Explanation of and rationale for research strategy Literature Review ;2200 words Aprox. Include both theories says flexi work time is good and bad ( use 35-45 sources) but at the end link writers idea with the theory that he agrees which is flexi work time is good. Research Design and Information ; 1700 words Aprox. -Research design -Primary and secondary data collection sources, population, samples, (create them accordingly) -Methods used to collect data -Methods used to analyse data -Project management and control (Resources associated cost, limitations such as access/ ethical issues/ time constrains, Measures taken to ensure project completed to time and quality. This should be a mixed method research where we use primary data (qualitative and quantitative) Secondary data (internal records) You can hypothetically create some data and do the research as well as attache the questionnaire, and some interview data ( you may create such supplements hypothecally) Findings and Analysis ; 2200 words Aprox. (use ilustrations E.G ; flow diagram/Graph) - Results should be presented with a full discussion and interpretation) - For that also bring some literature (8-10 sources) Conclusion - 700 words Aprox. - A summery of key findings providing an expainations of their significance. - was the research question answered & etc. Recommendations : 800 words Aprox. Reflection : 500 words Aprox. Appendices : word count not applied Referencing : Harvard Referencing Format (very important) ***RESEARCH PROPOSAL*** Introduction Wijesooriya Book Publishers are the Sri Lanka’s leading book publishing institute that published more than 1000 titles of books under their brand name. Wijesooriya Book Publishers publish both local authors’ books as well as the translations of world famous authors’ books. Wijesooriya Book Publishers have in house graphic designing, typesetting and printing facilities in order to execute their operations in expedite and smooth manner. Further high numbers of publications released in a calendar year and the conditions and regulations that business organization agree to follow with foreign publishing houses increased the requirement of unbroken and fast production process. Throughout past few years the business organization experienced high employee turnover among graphic designing and typesetting staff members that causes operational break downs that lead to infective and inefficient allocations of resources as well as incapacitation to reach predetermined targets. Further high level of employee turnover increased the organizations’ cost of hiring and training new employees as well as delays in releasing new books to the market caused disappointment among both authors and customers. I wish to carry out this research among graphic designing and typesetting staff members of Wijesooriya Book Publishers and understand the effectiveness and applicability of above theory. Project Aim & Objectives High level of employee turnover is one of the biggest issues that business organization can face in competitive business environment. In order to overcome this business problem and attracts employee towards the organizations different firms use different theories, practices and methods. Flexible working hours system is a very common concept that many organizations and individuals such as business researches and theorists that discuss in these days. The aim of this research to understand the impact of flexible working hours on employee turnover among Wijesooriya Book Publishers graphic designing and typesetting staff members. Target audience of this research is the management of Wijesooriya Book Publishers and further the outcome of this research will help to conclude whether flexible working hours help to reduce employee turnover at Wijesooriya Book Publishers among the type setting and graphic designing staff. The ultimate aim of this research to understand the effectiveness of flexible working hours concept as a method of reducing employee turnover and provide recommendations to the target audience. In the initial stage of this research I wish to carry out literature approach towards the concept of flexible working hours on employee turnover. Examine the prevailing theories and understand the pros and cons of this concept in an academic context. After the literature review part in order to understand the need of this concept data collection will be carried out among selected employees. The data that collected among the sample of employee will process to the data analyzing in order to understand employees ideas towards the concept. Then the applicability of the concept will examined from the managerial point of view. Eventually I wish to understand the pros and cons of flexible working hours concept and provide recommendations to the target audience. Literature Review . Flexible working hours have several effects on employees turn over; flexibility provides convenience in arranging business activities without deducting working hours. This means that employees can control their time at work and also the place of work. Time flexibility in an organization attracts training and maintenance of qualified employees (Avey, Luthans, & Jensen 2009). This helps the employees to feel satisfied with the workplace, hence get motivation that raises production. In addition, employers can know and understand what their employees feel about work. Flexibility brings about royalty and involvement, and high feeling of job satisfaction. This helps in production and reduction of employee's turnover. Flexible working hours is an essential tool for curbing employee's turnover as it helps employers to control and instruct the employees the time, and how much time they should be at work and also away from work (Batt, & Valcour 2003). At the workplace where time flexibility is exercised, different people take it differently; for example, men take it as the time to tighten their relationship with their employers while women take it to ensure they improve their work and balance their job duties and personal activities. Also, flexible working hours helps to satisfy work life responsibilities; as the employees get some time to relax and reduce their health problem that may be associated with overworking, for example, metal illnesses. According to the recent survey conducted to examine the importance of flexible working hours, it was found that employees can continue working as they get time to care for their families. For example, time flexibility helps the employees to balance what time to be at the workplace and what time to do home chores. Time flexibility brings about trust among the employers and the workers hence reducing employee turnover. Due to some free time, managers have to believe that the employees will complete their duties and provide the highest production (Scandura, & Lankau 2013). Since with time flexibility employers do not monitor employees, they develop a sense of belonging at the workplace. Lastly, flexible working hours enables employees to live a stress-free life as their get enough time to talk and share what could be bothering them. Also, due to job satisfaction, employees ensure they follow required instructions that make it easier to provide effective and efficient output. Many of the organizational theorists such as Maslow's hierarchy theory concludes that present highly dynamic and competitive environment, workers are an integral part of companies. This is because; most of daily operations depend on them. To indicate it simply, the success of an enterprise in realizing its goals relies heavily on the performance level of each staff. Therefore, it is advisable for each competitive organization first to reason out the factors affecting performance. The impacts of flexible working hours towards employee turnover according to Maslow's hierarchy theory is discussed below, • Self Actualization • 1. It encourages training and maintenance of qualified employees • 2. Increases employees job satisfaction, hence increased motivation that raises production • Esteem needs • 3. Time flexibility provides convenience in arranging business activities without deduction of working hours. • 4. Time flexibility brings about royalty and involvement • 5. Time flexibility brings about trust among employers and the workers hence reducing employees turnover • Belongingness and Love needs • 6. Helps employees control their time at work and also at home • 7. Time flexibility helped employees to work and got time to take care of their families • Safety needs • 8. It gives employees time to relax and hence reduce their health problem associated with overworking • 9. It helps employees live a stress-free life as they get time to talk and share what could be bothering them • Biological and Physiological needs • 10. Men take this time to tighten their relationship with their employers while the woman takes it to improve their jobs and balance their job duties and personal activities. In conclusion, considering the aspect of time flexibility on both employee and employer's point of view, a high feeling of job and bosses satisfaction, good performance, work commitment, and lack of employee's absenteeism and turnover has lead to increased business output and revenue. To summarize, it is evident that time flexibility helps the employees to balance their work with their home duties due to overall job satisfaction that leads to reduced employees turn over. Research Methods Methodology of this research is mixed method, where both qualitative and quantitative data used. In order to approach more staff members quantitative method will used, that will help to interview more staff members. In the quantitative approach a questionnaire will provide among the sample of employees. That will help to gather the ideas of more numbers of employees and will help to understand the general idea among employees towards this concept. Further this questionnaire will help to understand the preferred working time among the employees, whether they like the existing system, how will they expect to distribute their designated tasks if this system introduced and etc. Further this quantitative approach will give clear idea about how majority of employees think. In the quantitative approach initially identify a sample of employees that will more or less reflect the entire staffs’ composition. In order to choose correct sample that will represent the entire graphic designing and typesetting staff it’s very important to study the composition of the staff. After studying the composition of the staff then they will break down to different categories based on different factors such as gender, age, marital status and etc. After breaking them into different categories based on above facts the next step is to create a pie chart based on these data in order to get a clear idea about the percentage of each group. Once the calculation of percentage is done then move to the next step which is choosing the sample. After the sampling is done next stage is collecting quantitative data through the provided questionnaire. The other approach of the research is qualitative approach which will support to collect detailed information about the research question. Sample that going to interview for qualitative data collection as below ; No. of interviewees Already left 02 Given resignation 01 Others 03 Semi structured interview will carry out based on above composition. In that composition of 2 employees that have already left the company is selected in order to collect the data to understand whether there’s any relationship between their resignation and working time or is flexible working hours concept can sort the reason that they resign. Once again an employee who has already given his/her resignation will interviewed to understand whether there’s any relationship between work time and employee satisfaction or are there any reasons that caused them to resign can be sorted by implementing this concept. Next group is the 3 of current employees. Once again this group will help to understand employees’ preference towards flexible working hours system. Further ideas of this group will useful to understand difficulties that employees experience with prevailing system and whether flexible working hours concept will help them to minimize those issues. The final interview will carry out with the managing director of the Wijesooriya Book Publishers. Idea of doing this interview is to understand the applicability of this concept and practical issues. This interview is carried out from a managerial point of view. This will help to understand the pros and cons of this concept, how to implement this system accordingly to company’s environment and etc. All above methods will collect primary data related to the concept flexible working hours concept. The next stem of the research is to gather secondary data. The secondary data collection of this research based on internal records that will related to the research question. In this approach I wish to understand whether there’s relationship between flexible working hours concept and the reasons that previous employees stated in their resignation letters. This will useful to understand whether there’s a impact of this concept on employee turnover.