Your purpose in these papers is to analyze the rhetorical situation and purpose of assigned literary works. Going back to the description of the course—who made it? when and where (occasion)? for whom (audience)? for what purpose(s)? with what degree of success? How do you know? How do the answers to these questions affect what the author could say, and how (ie: style, genre)? How does the meaning of the text differ or change from its original rhetorical situation to our own? Why? Why do you think this is interesting or important (the answer to which is the basis for a thesis statement). A successful paper will be developed in the form of an essay of 4-5 pages, with a clear thesis, and thorough, detailed analysis. You’ll use 3 or more good secondary sources, cited correctly. You will demonstrate a very solid command of grammar, spelling, etc. To make this work more manageable, I encourage you to work in teams of 2-4: help one another find and evaluate sources. You may write the papers together too. Please make use of me as much as you need—ask questions in class and see me in office hours to discuss topics and research strategies. If you choose to work in a team, each assignment you submit must include a self-assessment for each member: what did YOU contribute to the project? For each paper: 1. For every main and supporting claim you make about a work, you must have evidence. The most important evidence comes from close textual and rhetorical analysis of the works in question, so a vital part of writing each of these papers is reading and re-reading your primary sources—the stories, plays, or poems that you’re interested in. You should KNOW what every single word in the text means. LOOK STUFF UP. You cannot write a strong analysis based on incomplete reading. Seriously: don’t hand anything in until you understand what you’ve read. In order to answer these questions, you’ll need to do research, to find evidence from good sources. You will need to consider the historical and social context of a work as well as details about the author’s life and beliefs (religious, philosophical, idiosyncratic); you will definitely want to find out what your learned colleagues have already been saying about each work’s meaning and significance. Finding these kinds of secondary sources takes work, and time—overestimate how much time you’ll need. Be prepared to get creative and exert yourselves. Using a basic web search will NOT be enough, guaranteed. The MCPHS University library has a lot of good resources in databases and the e-brary. If you find sources using Google Scholar (not regular Google) the library can usually get those materials to you fairly quickly, though not automatically, through ILL. The BPL has better databases in literature and history, such as the MLA, JStor, and Project Muse. If you’re willing to challenge yourselves a bit (and leave the building) you can find everything you need. Note: You must be able to tell the difference between articles and journals/magazines; chapters and books; webpages and websites; sources and the databases/search engines where you find the databases. You can neither cite nor evaluate your sources correctly otherwise. Writer’s Help is a great tool for reviewing the principles of citation and details about format. Use it! 2. You should be able to paraphrase/quote from/refer to specific passages in both the primary and secondary sources. DON'T quote long passages--only quote enough to support or demonstrate the point you're making. DON'T quote something and then say "this shows that...": 1) Make your point, 2) quote/paraphrase, then explain how (1) and (2) relate to one another and to your thesis. 3. Cite everything. Include a list of Works Cited including your primary and secondary sources; aim for at least one secondary source for each primary source (more are better!). If you use Wikipedia or Sparknotes etc, do so only to get started on your research. They do not count toward your total secondary sources BUT if you get any information or ideas from them that you use in your paper, you must cite them as sources.