Financial marketplaces are mechanisms (formal and informal) that allow people to trade financial securities, goods and other items of value at a price. For many years now, these markets have contributed positively to the development of a nation's economy, but their constant efficiency has been debated by scholars. Among such reviews is Eugene Fama (1970) which facilitates the assertion that financial marketplaces are "efficient" (that is, a market which prices always completely reflect available information). The Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) views prices of securities in the financial markets as totally reflecting all available information. This theory of effective capital marketplaces is reinforced by the academic field of financing. However, the validity of the hypothesis has been questioned by critics in recent years.