CREATED ON 9th June 2019
COMPLETED ON 9th June 2019
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student replies to programming

Please reply back to students and continue on from what was written be sure to add some questions based off of what was written - share what you found interesting or other research may have found must be completed today in next 5 to 6hours- 6/9 APA format 150 words for both student replies Student 1 After looking at the different training programs in the back of “The Ultimate Guide to Weight Training for Track and Field” there are several differences between the three training programs. As we move through the programs the repetitions per set go down. So, the endurance program has the most repetitions per set, the general fitness has a medium range and the strength training program has the least number of repetitions per set. With some repetitions per set going as low as 1 or 2, but no higher than 12. All of the programs gained number of sets from the novice level to the more experienced level. Some of the programs had some weird exercise schemes. For example, in the strength training program there are a couple of weeks where the client would do 21 sets, some fairly heavy, before getting to 5 seats of deadlifts. On the fifth set of deadlifts the program calls for a 2-rep set. That’s pretty heavy after completing 5 sets of leg press and 4 of bent-over barbell rows, as well as 12 other sets. The one novice exercise that I thought was a little out of place was the power clean. It seems like more of an advanced move for someone who is just beginning working out. If I were speaking with a novice, I would suggest doing the power cleans after learning some more basic movements of weight lifting. It always seems a novice weightlifter tries to move like they have been in daily life. As in, when a novice tries to squat, they crumple like an accordion sitting into a chair. That is to say, their biomechanics need adjusting in order to find the correct movement that won’t cause injury. I would suggest working with a trainer or an experienced lifter to get the movements down to reduce the risk of injury. I didn’t see any Women’s program in the book that was provided in this week’s lesson. From my experience I would say that women’s programs use the words firming versus mass gains or strength because women typically fear getting “bulky”. The assumption amongst many women is that if they begin to lift weights, and especially if they lift “heavy” weights, they will begin to look like a man. However, men have much more testosterone in their bodies than women do, so a woman would have to work exceptionally hard in order to become “bulky” naturally. In fact, one study found that men gained twice as much volume as women when strength training (Ivey et al., p M641). I did not find any difference between male and female neural systems, but I did find some differences in the make-up of male and females. It has been found that females tend to have slower type fibers than males and have lower contractile velocities (Haizlip, Harrison & Leinwand, p. 39). Because of the predominance of slow twitch fibers, females have a “higher oxidative capacity” and it can produce more endurance and recovery than their male counterparts (Haizlip, Harrison & Leinwand, p. 39). Estrogen and testosterone are two of the links relating to hypertrophy and fiber size student 2 This week’s focus is on programming. 1A) What is the first difference (training variable) that you notice between these three programs? Is there anything that you would do differently between these two programs? Why? When looking at the various programs outlined in week 1’s reading, there are some major differences. Many of these differences are directly relative to the experience level of the athlete. For example, the first training variable that is really noticeable between levels is training volume. Training volume can roughly be defined as the amount of work that is required of the athlete in a given training session or training cycle. This is normal. As an athlete becomes more experienced and fit, the amount of work that is needed of them, in order to continue to see progression, must increase. Otherwise, adaptations will be hard to come by. This can be done in a variety of ways, which is illustrated by the various programs. This can be done through higher frequency of training (more training sessions per week), higher number of sets/reps, or through adding more exercises. All 3 of those methods are used in some variation throughout the programs (Price, 2011, p. 135-148). The main thing that I would change or add to the outlined training programs is a form of progression. The exercises, reps, and sets are all illustrated, but there is no example of how to progressively overload the exercises. Typically, in a well-organized training program, periodization is present, which allows for progression of the exercises. Thus the athlete is able to gain strength, speed, or increase in whatever physical attribute is needed. Simply doing the same exercises, in the same way, every week is not going to allow for continued adaptations over time. Again, this can be done in a variety of ways. That athlete could add more sets, more weight, reduce rest times, etc. Regardless of the method used, progression is necessary. 1B) Can you spot the exercise that would more than likely be too difficult for novice exercisers in these programs? In the novice program, the exercise that I believe would be deemed too difficult for an inexperienced athlete is the power clean. The power clean is a complex movement that requires movement and force to be generated from multiple joints. The athlete should likely get the hang of simpler movements before progressing to something like the power clean (Price, 2011, p. 135). 1C) How would you suggest novices proceed when beginning a weight training program in relation to these programs in the readings and are there any modifications you would make to them? Explain your answer. When progressing as a novice, I believe that the important thing is mastery of the movements. The exercise difficulty should be low in the beginning with the focus being on technique and slowly progressing the weights used. The programs outlined are not bad with progressing the workouts. However, a more organized progression in volume should be used, in my opinion. That way the athlete knows where to begin when entering a new training cycle. In addition, I would personally use a bit more exercise variety as the athlete gains experience. 2. You might notice that once we get to the Women's programs, the term firming is used versus mass gains or strength. Is there any real difference in the mechanisms at the level of the neural system or muscle that is different between men and women? In other words, if I have both a man and a woman use a 5 pound weight for biceps curls, is there anything going on that is different between men and women per the changes in the muscles and/or CNS? Explain your answer. When entering the women’s programs, the term “firming” is preferred over “mass gains”. This is interesting. This is likely due to the negative connotation “mass gains” has with women. Often times women fear gaining too much muscle. However, the truth is that the basically physiology of exercise is the same for both men and women. Firming is essentially when the body gains muscle and loses fat. This leads to that “firm” look. The muscle building process is the same for both sexes ("Is There a Difference Between Female and Male Muscles?," 2011). 3. Building on the question above, why do men see greater hypertrophy and strength gains than women? There is a definite difference in the amount of muscle that can be built by men when compared to women. Men can, generally, gain a lot more muscle than women. The main reason for this is testosterone. Testosterone is released in much higher quantities in men than in women. The release of testosterone is very influential in the muscle-building process. When it comes to strength gains, a larger muscle has more potential to produce force. Thus, the strength gains, to some degree, are simultaneously realized in conjunction with muscle gains
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