The treaty at Fort Stanwix in 1768 established a border along the Ohio River and recognized the lands north of the river as the property of the Indian peoples. However, after the American Revolution, the United States began to assert that the Indian peoples are no longer the owners of these lands, while relying on the article of the Paris Peace Treaty of 1783, in which the United Kingdom agreed to cede the Indian lands. The Indians refused to admit that the British or Americans have the right to dispose of their tribal lands without their consent. They said that they were not represented at peace talks, did not sign the treaty, and do not recognize such a transfer of rights to their lands. When American settlers began to settle in the Ohio Valley in ever increasing numbers, the Indians regarded it as an illegal invasion.
The Western Confederation, a union of Native American tribes, was created to fight for the preservation of their traditional lands. The Confederation was able to win a series of victories over the American troops in 1790 and 1791, triggering the alarm of the administration of President George Washington. Washington judged that the settlers lay the bulk of the blame for the bloodshed. Nevertheless, he began preparations for the defeat of the Indian Union, since the battles were becoming more serious. In 1792, the president ordered the hero of the War of Independence, General Anthony Wayne, to create and lead a new army, which must suppress the Indian resistance. Wayne saw that previous campaigns ended in failure due to poor training and weak discipline of soldiers. He received enough time for a quality training of his recruits, while in the summer of 1793 peaceful negotiations were held.
The military chief of the Shawnee tribe, the Blue Jacket and the chief of the Bakonhahelas Delaware, inspired by their previous victories and counting on the support of the British, insisted on returning to the borders fixed by the Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768. They rejected later agreements signed without their participation and transferring land north of the Ohio River to the United States. The opposition, led by the influential Mohawk leader Joseph Brant, tried to persuade the Confederacy to compromise with the Americans, but the Blue Jacket did not agree to anything less than the Ohio border that the US refused to recognize. The US government waged war for the possession of Indian lands in the Ohio Valley under the leadership of the Minister of War Henry Knox.
The treaty at Fort Stanwix in 1768 established a border along the Ohio River and recognized the lands north of the river as the property of the Indian peoples.