Aristocracy is the power of the elite, the privileged nobility. Based on class privileges, the aristocracy was firmly held in power until the emergence of republican democratic regimes. In the 20th century, with the abolition of estate privileges inherited in most countries, the aristocracy ceased to be a stable subject of power, although in a number of countries it retained its nominal status (England, Spain, Italy, and Saudi Arabia).
Bureaucracy is the power of officials. It is characteristic of all stages of historical development. The power of the bureaucracy is based on their access to sensitive, strategically important information, knowledge of management technology, group solidarity, and organization. In the 20th century, the power of the bureaucracy in connection with the introduction into the management of information technologies intensified with information resources.
At the base of the aristocracy, there is the idea that only best minds should govern the state. But in practice the question of this election is different. In some aristocracies, the defining origin is the nobility of origin, in others military valor, higher mental development, religious or moral superiority, and finally, the size and kind of property. However, in most aristocrats, several of these factors, or all of them are combined to determine the right to state power.
In the conditions of bureaucracy, the authorities see their task not as to profitably operate within the framework of these powers and instructions, but in fulfilling the demands made by higher authorities. This is manifested in the practice of notes, the implementation of a number of prescribed formalities in order to satisfy higher authorities. Administrative activity is reduced to writing, instead of the actual performance they are content with writing official papers.
The second distinguishing feature of the bureaucracy is the alienation of bureaucracy from the rest of society. The state takes its employees from all social groups and in the same collegium it unites those who come from noble families, urban inhabitants and peasants. But they all feel equally alienated from all social subgroups. They are alien to the consciousness of the common good, they do not share the vital tasks of any of the social group, class or estate of society individually.
Aristocracy is the power of the elite, the privileged nobility. Based on class privileges, the aristocracy was firmly held in power until the emergence of republican democratic regimes.