Yellow fever is a natural focal arbovirus infection that is spreading in the tropical countries of Africa and America by the mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus, occurring in the form of an acute fever with the development of hemorrhagic syndrome, shock, and hepatic renal failure. In connection with the possibility of the emergence of mass epidemics, yellow fever belongs to the group of diseases prescribed by the International Health Regulations, and is subject to compulsory registration with WHO.
The disease was first described in 1647–1648 during an epidemic outbreak in the Caribbean region, where, as it was established in the 1930s, the pathogen was imported from Africa. In subsequent centuries in the countries of America, Africa, and even Europe, the disease often took the form of severe epidemics with high mortality. The largest epidemics were observed at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century in the construction of the Panama Canal, when this disease, Yellow Jeck, killed about 10,000 people.
The transmission of the pathogen by mosquitoes was established by the Cuban doctor Finlay in 1881. 20 years later, in 1901, in Cuba, American researchers under the leadership of Major W. Reed isolated the virus and in experiments on volunteers proved its transmission by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. In 1933, Stokes in Ghana and Dr. Sooper with co-workers in South America, established the natural focality of the disease. The development and implementation of measures to combat mosquitoes significantly contributed to limiting the spread of the disease.
A decisive role in the fight against yellow fever was played by the development of attenuated vaccine 17D in 1937 by the Nobel laureate Max Theiler.
During the implementation of the WHO program for control of yellow fever and vaccination of the endemic region population, the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) noted a marked decrease in the incidence of this infection. However, in 1986-1991, in Nigeria and a number of other African countries, the epidemiological situation has deteriorated again, the number of registered cases of the disease has exceeded 20,000 people, of which more than 4,600 have ended lethally.
The pathogen – Flavivirus febricis belongs to the Flaviviridae family. Spherical viral particles with a diameter of 40-50 nm contain a lipid shell with enveloped proteins and inclusions of glycoproteins and nucleocapsids, encapsulating a single-stranded +RNA that codes the synthesis of membrane, nucleocapsid, and 7 unstructured proteins.
Yellow fever is a natural focal arbovirus infection that is spreading in the tropical countries of Africa and America by the mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus, occurring in the form of an acute fever with the development of hemorrhagic syndrome, shock, and hepatic renal failure.