Bionics is an applied science about the application of the principles of organization, properties, functions, and structures of living nature in technical devices and systems, that is, living forms in nature and their industrial counterparts. Simply put, bionics is a combination of biology and technology. Bionics considers biology and technology from a completely new angle, explaining what commonalities and differences exist in nature and technology.
There are the following kinds of bionics: biological bionics (studies the processes occurring in biological systems); theoretical bionics (builds mathematical models of these processes); technical bionics (uses models of theoretical bionics to solve engineering problems).
Bionics very close refers to such sciences as biology, physics, chemistry, cybernetics, and engineering: electronics, navigation, communications, sea affairs, and others.
The idea of applying knowledge of living nature to solve engineering problems belongs to Leonardo da Vinci, who tried to build an aircraft with flapping wings, like in birds: the ornithopter.
The emergence of cybernetics, which considers the general principles of control and communication in living organisms and machines, has stimulated a broader study of the structure and functions of living systems in order to clarify their generality with technical systems, and to use the information obtained about living organisms to create new instruments, mechanisms, materials, etc.
The main areas of work on bionics cover the following problems:
The study of the nervous system of a man and animals and the modeling of nerve cells (neurons) and neural networks for the further development of computer technology and the development of new elements and devices for automation.
Research of sense organs and other perceiving systems of living organisms with the purpose of developing new sensors and detection systems.
Study of the principles of orientation, location, and navigation in various animals to use these principles in technology.
Study of morphological, physiological, and biochemical features of living organisms for the promotion of new technical and scientific ideas.
Creation of a model in bionics is half the battle. To solve a specific practical problem, it is necessary not only to check the availability of properties of interest to the practice of the model, but also to develop methods for calculating the preset technical characteristics of the device, developing methods of synthesis that ensure the achievement of the required parameters in the task.
Bionics is an applied science about the application of the principles of organization, properties, functions, and structures of living nature in technical devices and systems, that is, living forms in nature and their industrial counterparts. Simply put, bionics is a combination of biology and technology.