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Safe Injection Sites – ISU Description

Injection is routine, and perhaps the most frequent work of a nurse, and a good injection technique can make this manipulation relatively painless for the patient. However, technical mastery without understanding the manipulation exposes the patient to an unnecessary risk of complications.

Drugs are injected parenterally because they are usually so absorbed faster than from the gastrointestinal tract, or, like insulin, they are destroyed by digestive enzymes. Some drugs are released for a long time, and an administration route is required that ensures a constant absorption of the drug.

There are four main injection characteristics: injection site, route of administration, injection technique and equipment.

The intradermal route of administration is intended to provide local rather than systemic action of drugs, and is generally used primarily for diagnostic purposes, such as allergotests and tuberculin samples, or for the administration of local anesthetics.

To perform intradermal injection, a needle 25G with a cut upward is injected into the skin at an angle of 10-15 °, exclusively under the epidermis and injected to 0.5 ml of the solution until the appearance of the so-called "lemon crust" on the skin surface. Such a route of administration is used to perform allergotests, and the injection site must be marked to track the allergic reaction after a certain period of time.

The subcutaneous route of drug administration is used when a slow, uniform absorption of the drug into the blood is necessary, with 1-2 ml of the drug administered under the skin. This route of administration is ideal for such drugs as insulin, which requires slow, uniform release; it is relatively painless and suitable for frequent injections. Traditionally, hypodermic injections are performed by injecting a needle at an angle of 45 degrees into the fold of the skin.

When administered intramuscularly, the drug appears in a well-perfused muscle, which ensures its rapid systemic exposure, and absorption of sufficiently large doses, from 1 ml from the deltoid muscle to 5 ml in other muscles in adults (for children, these values should be divided in half). The choice of the site for injection should be based on the general condition of the patient, his age and the volume of the drug solution that must be entered.

The intended injection site should be examined for signs of inflammation, edema and infection, avoiding the introduction of the drug in areas of skin damage.

Injection is routine, and perhaps the most frequent work of a nurse, and a good injection technique can make this manipulation relatively painless for the patient. However, technical mastery without understanding the manipulation exposes the patient to an unnecessary risk of complications.

Assignment ID
100004334
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CREATED ON
4 April 2017
COMPLETED ON
5 April 2017
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$34
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