Wide open spaces for the architecture in the style of modernism opened as a result of the effects of the Second World War. Many European cities have been destroyed. A world of a new formation was being planned. There was a possibility to design entire neighborhoods without any connection to the old architectural ensemble of cities. The largest constructions in the style of modernism were made in cities with the greatest devastation – Berlin and Le Havre. These were giant construction sites where great international teams of famous architects modernists worked together – Hans Scharoun, Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier, Alvar Aalto, Oscar Niemeyer, Pier Luigi Nervi, Marcel Breuer, Auguste Perret, Bernard Zehrfuss, and many others.
Modernism in architecture encompasses creativity of pioneers of modern architecture and their followers in the time interval from the beginning of the 1920s until 1970s-1980s (in Europe), when there were new trends in architecture.
The credo of modernism is inherent in its very name – it is a creation of something new. That is, the fundamental setting for the novelty of architecture, both design and planning ideas and external forms which, according to the modernist architects, should proceed from the achievements of new building technologies. The figurative expression ‘prisms made of glass and concrete’ beautifully conveys the general character of modernist buildings. The basic principles of modern architecture is the use of the most modern building materials, a rational approach to the design and interior spaces, absence of decoration trends, principle rejection of historical reminiscences in the form of buildings, their international character. As for the social attitudes of modernist architects, as a rule, they were distinguished by a clear democracy, and even leftism, at least in many of its theoretical declarations.
However, the aesthetics of modernism in comparison with 1920s did not remain unchanged, evolving under the influence of the construction techniques and a variety of new composite and functional tasks. When comparing in the end of life extremely austere forms of modernism of the 1920s with the architecture of 1950s - 1960s, Walter Gropius noted the development and enrichment of forms.
Regardless of the climatic and political conditions mass housing construction from Sweden to the southern borders of the USSR developed on the basis of common principles. As a rule, it was based on the methods of extensive urban development with built-up suburban areas.
Wide open spaces for the architecture in the style of modernism opened as a result of the effects of the Second World War. Many European cities have been destroyed. A world of a new formation was being planned. There was a possibility to design entire neighborhoods without any connection to the old architectural ensemble of cities.