A country located on the middle and lower reaches of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates was called Mesopotamia, or Mesopotamia. Now it is the territory of present-day Iraq. The state had a favorable geographical location. On its territory are the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and flow into the Persian Gulf. Middle and lower part of the valley is a valley, located in the east of the Zagros Mountains, in the north - the Caucasus, the Armenian Highland. From the west it rises to the Syrian, Mesopotamian desert.
After the flood lands of the valley covered with emerald grass, dense vegetation. But summer in Mesopotamia is long and hot.
Green quickly fades; there is sun-scorched plain brown, water, stagnant in the lowlands, rots. In Mesopotamia, the soil was extremely fertile.
Fauna of Mesopotamia was very diverse: there were driven wild oxen, donkeys, pigs, gazelles, rabbits, ostriches, lions. Rivers and lakes are abundant in fish, in reed beds and marshes were many birds.
A significant part of the territory is occupied by marshes of Mesopotamia, formed due to landslides and floods. These conditions were not favorable for habitation.
However, in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains, and the first settlements date back to the Paleolithic era. In the valleys of the Upper and Lower Zab - tributaries of the Tigris - archaeologists have found parking people who lived here 70 80 thousand years ago. The ancient people, who lived in the mountains, go down in search of food in the valley, then come back the mountains.
At the beginning of the III millennium BC in the extreme south of Mesopotamia there were first the Sumerian settlements.
Since the mid IV millennium BC in Mesopotamia in place of large and small settlements emerge city-state of Uruk, Heredia, Larsa, Lagash, Isin, and Kish. To protect against attacks, they have been strengthened by walls, protective structures: from the outside was dug pit, which is filled with water. Each city-state had its own ruler, bureaucracy, signified the army, the priests.
At a very early stage of the emergence of city-states were created in their councils of elders that could withstand even the governor. With the development of income inequality weakens their role. The mainstay of the ruler becomes an army, know the priesthood.
XXIV at the end BC there is stronger position of city-state of Umma. Its ruler Lugalzaggesi united with Uruk, creates a new state, which then submits and ruining others.
A country located on the middle and lower reaches of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates was called Mesopotamia, or Mesopotamia. Now it is the territory of present-day Iraq. The state had a favorable geographical location. On its territory are the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and flow into the Persian Gulf.