The Great Leap is economic and political campaign in China from 1958 to 1960, aimed at strengthening the industrial base and a sharp rise of the national economy. At that time, China represented 90% of agricultural land which was badly needed modernization. Mao Zedong argued policy of Great Leap Forward with the help of the Marxist theory of the productive forces, but his attempt to enhance economic growth by cutting collectivization and replace professional enthusiasm turned into a disaster: the result of the Great Leap Forward was the death of 20 to 40 million people, and that made it the largest social catastrophe of the XX century.
Great Leap Forward was preceded by complicated events in Chinese history. On the one hand, China, gradually recovering after a long war, was organizing industry. On the other hand, the campaign led to management difficulties and defeated the intelligentsia.
A number of reforms were held - in particular, banned religious organizations and mystical rituals, a partial collectivization and formed small farms; the state took over control the distribution of agricultural products.
On the left side of the Communist Party of China had the idea to boost the development of the economy, based on the general enthusiasm of the population. A more pragmatic right-wing of Communists opposed this policy, but lost the fight.
Great Leap Forward resulted in a series of massive all-China campaign, which brought virtually the entire population, approaching in size to a billion people.
China's second Five-Year Plan was called the Great Leap Forward.
Based on the experience of collectivization in the Soviet Union, Mao Zedong prepared transformation of the social structure. In order to perform the tasks of the Great Leap Forward, it was necessary to join. Since 1958, they began to create "people's communes" - large self-contained group of living and working together, eating in the common dining room. Sharing tool instead of money in these groups were "workdays". People's communes were already sufficient education to build a small steel furnaces or for agricultural work. The main occupation of the communes was agricultural activity. By the end of 1958 25 thousand municipalities were created, the average size of the commune was 5 000 families.
The first tough criticism of the Great Leap Forward policy was announced at the Lushan Conference; Marshal Peng Dehuai prepared a scathing analysis of the work in the countryside and small industry.
The Great Leap is economic and political campaign in China from 1958 to 1960, aimed at strengthening the industrial base and a sharp rise of the national economy. At that time, China represented 90% of agricultural land which was badly needed modernization.