The religious beliefs of the ancient Chinese were markedly different from those of religious systems that were created by representatives of Indo-European people in the Middle East and Europe. Other natural conditions, a different type of social organization and, accordingly, a completely different type of thinking spawned in China a peculiar form of religion, the most famous of which are Daoism and Confucianism.
Great Chinese philosopher Kung-tzu, known in European literature under the name of Confucius, advanced as a social ideal the noble person of high moral character, ready to sacrifice themselves in the name of truth, with high sense of duty, a humanist who respects their elders. He put forward the idea that the state is as family, only bigger. Chinese philosopher also offered the idea of reasonable governance, the ultimate goal of which is the creation of a perfect ethical and socially harmonious society.
The second degree of influence in China has the philosophical doctrine of the Great Absolute, Daoism, which took shape around the 4th. B.C. The Chinese word dao has many meanings – way, world foundation of existence, etc. The main canon of Daoism is attributed to the Chinese philosopher Lao Tzu, the legendary contemporary of Confucius.
According to the concept of Daoism, there is no absolute good and absolute evil, there is no absolute truth and absolute lie – all the concepts and values are relative. Everything in the world is subject to the law chosen by the sky, which conceals an infinite variety and order of magnitude.
Daoism and Confucianism are essentially the ideas and principles which underlie the national cultural traditions of China. Daoism and Confucianism are the heart of Chinese culture. If Confucianism is the body of culture, Daoism is the beginning of life, driving the whole body. Daoism and Confucianism influenced the formation of the cultural traditions of China. The impact may have something external, alien, and separate.
Daoism and Confucianism acquainted China with the beginnings of fiction. Novels were a favorite kind of fiction and, in turn, played a role in the formation of larger genres, including classical Chinese novel. There is a belief among some religious scholars that Confucianism is the active form of the passive Dao. While some support this theory, others believe that the most effective way is to read the literature of both the Zhuang-zi and The Analects to take it at our perspective.
The religious beliefs of the ancient Chinese were markedly different from those of religious systems that were created by representatives of Indo-European people in the Middle East and Europe.