Many people consider that Emile Durkheim is the founder of sociology as a science. In fact, before his studies and scientific activity, he had the goal. That is why he was going to create a separate and independent science which focused on the study of society primarily on the macro level. During his life, Emile Durkheim strove to establish and demonstrate his results of the studying and the scientific status of sociology. His work which concerns social causes of suicide has the great importance because this study is going to establish empiricism in sociology that is able to give the understandable explanations for the phenomenon which regarded as exclusively individualistic and psychological from the sociological point of view.
To understand the Emil Durkheim’s theories about the causes of suicide, it is necessary to remain some facts. Firstly it is important to remember which definition he gives to the term “suicide”. So Durkheim understands the suicide as any case of death which is the result of directly or indirectly from the negative or positive act of the victim when the person knows about the result of the completed actions.
After creating the definition of suicide, Emil Durkheim wanted to explain. this phenomenon from the sociological point of view. He gathered data from some European nations. Mostly he looked at the suicide rate statistics and made the analyses of gathered information. According to the comparative statistics, there are relatively constant suicide rates for different countries and categories of people. But also it must the social fact show that collective tendencies exist towards suicide.
Being based on his own findings, Emil Durkheim gave the theoretical conclusion about the social causes of suicide. According to his classification, there are four types of suicide, which may be committed due to the social causes. These types are based because of imbalance of two social forces. It is said about moral regulation (degree of moral regulation) and social integration (degree of interaction or integration in the group of people).
So-called egoistic suicide is considered to be the most important type which resulted from the so little social integration. It may concern some individuals who are not sufficiently bound to any social groups. People are left with the unimportant social guidance or support, and that’s why they decide to commit the suicide.
Many people consider that Emile Durkheim is the founder of sociology as a science. In fact, before his studies and scientific activity, he had the goal. That is why he was going to create a separate and independent science which focused on the study of society primarily on the macro level.