Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the most complex joint in the human body. It is a complex system of bone structures, muscles, ligaments, and discs that provide movement of the lower jaw and the occlusion of teeth. When internal disorders are in the first stage there are chronic dislocations of the head of the jaw. Usually, there are no complaints, only sometimes patients tell about unpleasant movements of the organ.
TMJ dysfunction can be diagnosed by the presence of a number of characteristics, for example, if the opening or closing of the mouth we hear clicking or crunching. The symptoms of TMJ dysfunction include pain or discomfort while chewing and yawning. The function of TMJ can be disrupted by displacement of the mandible or changes of the occlusion of teeth. TMJ dysfunctions if there is the pain in the ears, ringing in the ears, and if the joint pains to any area of the head.
There are different causes of TMJ dysfunction: TMJ trauma, violation of the zone of jaws growth, the long absence of posterior teeth on one or both sides of the jaw, increased abrasion of the teeth due to bruxism, chewing on one side or the other. Because of the change of occlusion, the lower jaw is in forced position. This is one of the reasons of disturbing pain in the TMJ. A precise diagnosis is essential to treat the TMJ dysfunction properly. In addition to clinical examination, the diagnosis can be made only if there are the results of all required examinations of the patient. In some cases, the final diagnosis is conducted in collaboration with other related professionals to exclude such condition as pain related to the teeth or periodontium, tumours, neurological or ENT diseases, psychological disorders, posture problems. Such thorough examination is the global standard.
It is important to know that conventional methods of diagnosis, for example, magnetic resonance tomography, do not allow determining the deviation in the closed or open position of the mouth, showing the norm. To identify the displacement of the disk is possible only in dynamics, using ultrasound, fluoroscopy and arthrography.
Treatment of TMJ is in determining morphological and functional changes, and normalising the organ function plus preventing the development of further pathologies. To do this a doctor needs the assistance of different specialists: dentists, neurologists, rheumatologists, allergists, and others.
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the most complex joint in the human body. It is a complex system of bone structures, muscles, ligaments, and discs that provide movement of the lower jaw and the occlusion of teeth. When internal disorders are in the first stage there are chronic dislocations of the head of the jaw.