The agriculture of Hellenistic Italy was transformed by many reasons. Firstly, it happens because of appearance the great number of technical innovations, which were not known before. Also structural change had an influence on this sphere. During the last two centuries before Christ, the large estates were established. Of course, they had an important role in formation and development of the empire.
The most extensive farming was based on the slave labor, and everywhere it is remained though the cultivation units. Fortunately, now we have an opportunity to understand and to get the knowledge about the level of the agriculture in prior Italy. It provides thanks to the book “About Agriculture” which was written by the statesman from Rome in 160 BC. It is so ancient, but modern scientists have an opportunity to use these pieces of information to have an imagination of the life in those times. Maybe it can’t be called like the organized document or manual, but it is a collection of separate notes which differ from the tradition instructions. In the book it is given the descriptions of Cato’s own estates, which are situated near the borders of Campania and Latium. It is also mentioned about the farms. Every such farm was about the150 acres, and it was managed by at least thirteen people. There workers were specialists in cultivation the olives. Sixteen people worked in the other agricultural aspect, and they had to deal with the 60 acres. Of course, everywhere domestic animals and workers also should take care about them. In addition, the both descriptions form the book belong to these farms. They represented the usual cultivation units which existed in Late Republican Italy.
On the pages of book “About Agriculture” author lists not only animals and workers, but also equipment and tools, which were used by the residents of the prior Italy. The certain number of tables, axes, spades and other instruments were listed on the pages of these notes, which create the book. Moreover, in his work, Cato described the series of machines and mechanisms, which were used on each farm. It was done to demonstrate that he knew even the most recent innovations. For example, the press for olives of the most recent model was used. With the help of this tool also worker crushed the wine grapes, making a wine with time. Some instruments were used even for household chores, but nevertheless, the author thought to outline these facts which concern the development of agriculture of Hellenistic Italy.
The agriculture of Hellenistic Italy was transformed by many reasons. Firstly, it happens because of appearance the great number of technical innovations, which were not known before. Also structural change had an influence on this sphere. During the last two centuries before Christ, the large estates were established.