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History of Feminism in the 1990s

Feminism is a spectrum of ideologies, political, and social movements aimed at achieving equality of political, economic, personal, and social rights for women, or overcoming of sexism.

The feminist movements in the past and today have been struggling for women’s rights: the right to vote, the right to hold public office, the right to work and get equal pay, the right to property, education, participation in the transactions, equal rights in marriage, the right to maternity leave, the right to bodily autonomy, and integrity (protection of women and girls from rape, sexual harassment, and domestic violence). The feminist movements are considered one of the main driving forces of the biggest social changes in the field of women’s rights, particularly in Western countries, where their activities are almost unanimously recognized as the cause of such achievements as the women’s suffrage, women’s reproductive rights (access to contraception, abortion rights), right to bargain, and have the property, as well as the gender neutrality.

Although the feminist movements were and are mainly focused on women’s rights – many feminists advocate the inclusion of liberation of males in the feminist agenda because patriarchal organization of society and traditional gender roles, as they believe, are harmful to men as well.

The history of feminism is divided into three waves:

  • First Wave refers mainly to the suffragette movement of the 19th and early 20th centuries, in which key issues were the property rights for married women and women’s suffrage.
  • Second wave refers to the ideas and actions related to the women’s liberation movement, which began to develop in 1960 and advocated for full legal and social equality of women and men.
  • Third Wave is a continuation of the second wave and a response to a number of its failures. The emergence of the third wave refers to the 1990s, and is associated with so-called sex wars between feminists. This debate and the subsequent deep split within feminism on the anti-pornography feminism and sex-positive feminism is considered to be the era of the sunset of the second wave and the beginning of the third.

The characteristic features of the third wave of feminism are the inclusion of components of queer theory and internationalism, as well as destigmatization of female sexuality. In particular, the attitude to pornography, as one of the methods of exploitation of women, which was a characteristic of the second wave, changes to various diametrically opposite points of view.

The most prominent representatives of this movement are considered Alice Walker, Lili Taylor, Naomi Wolf, and others.

Feminism is a spectrum of ideologies, political, and social movements aimed at achieving equality of political, economic, personal, and social rights for women, or overcoming of sexism.

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100001941
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CREATED ON
September 23, 2016
COMPLETED ON
September 24, 2016
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$16
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