Canadian Confederation, also known as Confédération canadienne as referred to in French, is the process that reached its highest point on July 1, 1867, when the provinces, the colonies and territories of British North America created the union of the new federal states — a dominion of the British Empire Dominion of Canada. Meanwhile, more particularly, the expression usually refers to the political process which strived to unite the colonies in the 1860s, and not to the political structure of the country. It is also used as a term for the separation of Canadian history into two periods: pre-Confederation and after-Confederation (that continues up to the present time). Although the term "confederation" is often used to refer to Canada, Canada is currently more of a federation.
All those who contributed to the conferences held in the 1860s and led to the formation of the Confederation are considered to be the fathers of the Confederation. However, the territorial division of the Dominion in 1867 is significantly different from the modern map of Canada. Politicians who took part in the formation of boundaries and Canadian federalism after the formation of the Confederation (the end of XIX and the beginning of the XXI century) are considered to be its founders.
After the Confederation, the relations between Canada and the First Nations (aboriginals, Metis, and Inuit peoples) went from being friendly and mutually co-operative to hostile. At that times, the economy of the country changed drastically: fur trade went down, more immigrants move to the territory, the agricultural sector arose, etc. To settle the conflicts between Canada and the aboriginals, there were a number of treaties signed. Yet, those have never been properly cleared up and the disputes on them are still on-going. When the Indian Act was signed, the First Nations struggled with registering their identities, gender discrimination, land restrictions, and poor representation within the authorities. Later, Canada tried to assimilate the First Nations into the Euro-Canadian culture. This prompted the aboriginals to give up their identities and to accept another culture as a way of surviving. Not to mention that the First Nations were highly segregated even after they were fully adjusted into the Euro-Canadian communities.
Canadian Confederation, also known as Confédération canadienne as referred to in French, is the process that reached its highest point on July 1, 1867, when the provinces, the colonies and territories of British North America created the union of the new federal states — a dominion of the British Empire Dominion of Canada.