Deoxyribonucleic acid along with ribonucleic acid are two chemical substances actually involved in transmitting genetic information from parent to children. It was already known early into the 20th century that chromosomes appeared to be the material of cells, contained DNA. In 1944, Oswald T. Avery, Colin M. MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty proved that DNA was the key genetic component of chromosomes. After a while RNA was proven to regulate protein synthesis.
DNA happens to be the genetic material discovered in most viruses as well as in all cellular organisms. By the way, some viruses don’t feature DNA, while RNA instead. Depending on the organism, most DNA is discovered within a single chromosome like bacteria, or in several chromosomes like many other living beings. DNA can also find itself outside of chromosomes. Once can find this stuff in cell organelles, including plasmids in bacteria, in plants, and also mitochondria in both animals and plants.
All DNA molecules come with a set of linked units dubbed nucleotides. Every nucleotide is made up of three things. A sugar dubbed deoxyribose, is the first, to one end of which a phosphate group is attached.
As for the other, it’s one of several nitrogenous bases. We should stress that DNA has four nitrogenous bases. The first two, guanine, can be defied as double-ringed purine compounds, while the others, thymine and cytosine appear to be single-ringed compounds. Up to four types of DNA nucleotides can be created.
The phosphate group of every nucleotide is used to bonding with a carbon from the deoxyribose. It forms a so-called polynucleotide chain. Francis Crick along with James D. Watson proved that most DNA boast two polynucleotide chains, twisted together into a coil, thus making a double helix. Aside from that, Watson and Crick found out that the pairing between bases of the two chains is very specific in a double helix. It’s normally linked to thymine via two hydrogen bonds, while guanine is always linked to cytosine with the help of three bonds. That’s what scientists call base pairing.
Two basic functions are provided by the DNA of an organism. The first function is to supply protein, thus ensuring growth and development of the organism. As for the second one, it’s to provide all of it's descendants with own protein-synthesizing information by simply replicating itself and also providing every offspring with a copy. The information in the bases of DNA is dubbed the genetic code. Its major purpose is to specify the sequence of amino protein.
Deoxyribonucleic acid along with ribonucleic acid are two chemical substances actually involved in transmitting genetic information from parent to children. It was already known early into the 20th century that chromosomes appeared to be the material of cells, contained DNA. In 1944, Oswald T. Avery, Colin M.