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The First Italian Revolutions in Palermo 1848

The revolution of 1848-1849 in Italy was the bourgeois revolution, whose goals were the elimination of the feudal-absolutist order, destruction of state fragmentation and the foreign (Austrian) oppression, as well as creation of a unified national Italian state.

The prerequisite of the revolution was the fact that Lombardy and the Venetian region, populated mainly by Italians, were handed over to the Austrian Empire by the decision of the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Duchies of Modena, Parma, and Tuscany were also virtually ruled from Vienna. The population was in a subordinate position, did not have a national autonomy and was subjected to Germanization policies. Chancellor Metternich was terribly afraid of any national liberation movements. After the July Revolution in France departure of Belgium, in 1831 he ordered to put in Lombardy additional 10 thousand troops.

These circumstances made the position of the Austrians in Italy precarious and unstable; the local population and in general all Italians looked upon them as invaders, who actively opposed the unification of the country.

The revolution began with a popular uprising in Palermo on January 12, 1848. Power quickly moved into the hands of the Provisional Government, almost coming out of obedience to the Bourbons.

With the success of the uprising in Palermo in January 1848, uprisings started all over Italy. They even began in Lombardo-Venice region, which was under the control of Austria. Austria sent the troops headed by Radetzky against the Italians, but the uprisings did not abate.

In mid-March, a revolution broke out in Vienna. As soon as news of this reached Italy, on March 18 Milanese raised the real uprising. After five days of hard street fighting, the rebels forced the Austrian army and its general out of the city. On the same day, March 22, the independence of the region was proclaimed and Lombard and Venetian provincial government was formed headed by Gabrio Casati. On March 23, the Republic of St. Mark was proclaimed, which was headed by Daniele Manin.

An important point at this stage was the decision of King Charles Albert of Piedmont to head the liberation struggle. On March 25, 1848, he declared war on Austria and the Piedmontese troops marched into Lombardy.

Piedmont and Lombardy, the Republic of Venice, began the military operations against the Austrians. Therefore, King of Sicily and Duke of Tuscany were quick to send troops. Since the revolution began in most of the Austrian Empire, the Austrians did not have the strength to fight with the Italian patriots.

The revolution of 1848-1849 in Italy was the bourgeois revolution, whose goals were the elimination of the feudal-absolutist order, destruction of state fragmentation and the foreign (Austrian) oppression, as well as creation of a unified national Italian state.

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100001898
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CREATED ON
September 23, 2016
COMPLETED ON
September 24, 2016
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$31
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