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The Purpose of Particle Cloud Chamber

The cloud chamber is a track detector of elementary charged particles, in which the track of the particles is formed by a chain of small droplets of liquid along the path of its movement. The cloud chamber was invented by Charles Wilson in 1912 (Nobel Prize 1927).

An important step in the method of observing particles tracks was the creation of a cloud chamber. For this invention Charles Wilson was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1927. In the cloud chamber, the tracks of charged particles become visible due to the condensation of supersaturated vapor on the gas ions formed by a charged particle. The liquid droplets are formed on the ions, which grow to a size sufficient to observe and photograph in good light. The spatial resolution of the cloud chamber is typically 0.3 mm. The working environment is often represented by a mixture of water and alcohol vapor under a pressure of 0.1-2 atmosphere (water vapor condenses mainly on the negative ions and alcohol vapor condenses on the positive ones). The supersaturation is achieved by a rapid decrease in pressure due to the expansion of the working volume. The time of the sensitivity of the camera, during which supersaturation remains sufficient to condense on the ions, and the amount is enough transparent (not overloaded with droplets, including the background ones), varies from a few hundredths of a second to several seconds. After that, the working volume of the chamber needs to be cleaned and the sensitivity of the camera must be restored. Thus, the cloud chamber operates in a cyclic mode. Total cycle time is typically less or equal to 1 min.

The capabilities of a cloud chamber can be significantly increased by placing it in a magnetic field. The sign of the charge and momentum is determined by trajectories of a charged particle of a curved magnetic field. With the help of the cloud chamber K. Anderson discovered the positron in cosmic rays in 1932.

Observation of positron in a cloud chamber placed in a magnetic field is seen as a thin curved dotted line going from the bottom up – a track of the positron. The dark line crossing the track in the middle is a layer of matter, in which a positron loses some energy, and in the output of which is moving at a slower speed. Therefore, the track is bent more.

An important improvement that was awarded with the Nobel Prize in 1948 (P. Blackett) was the creation of a managed cloud chamber. Special counters select the events, which must be registered by a cloud chamber, and trigger the camera only to observe such events.

The cloud chamber is a track detector of elementary charged particles, in which the track of the particles is formed by a chain of small droplets of liquid along the path of its movement. The cloud chamber was invented by Charles Wilson in 1912 (Nobel Prize 1927).

An important step in the method of observing particles tracks was the creation of a cloud chamber.

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Assignment ID
100001890
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CREATED ON
September 25, 2016
COMPLETED ON
September 26, 2016
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$50
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