In the history of literature, utopian novels and stories have always played a major role, as they were a form of understanding and evaluation of the future image. Appearing, as a rule, from the criticism of the present, utopia drew a further movement of society and its possible paths, and showed various options for the future. This feature of utopian literature still exists, despite the rapid growth of futurology and science fiction, which also aspire to the knowledge of the future.
The term utopia is originally derived from the name of a fantastic, fictional island in the famous book by Thomas More. This term literally means a place that does not exist. Throughout the history, utopia as one of the original forms of social consciousness embodied such traits as understanding of social ideal, a social critic, a call to escape from grim reality, as well as attempts to anticipate the future of society. Utopia is closely intertwined with the legends of the Golden Age, the islands of the blessed with various religious and ethical concepts and ideals. In the Renaissance, utopia acquired a form of description the perfect state or ideal cities that supposedly existed somewhere in the world.
As a form of social fantasy utopia doesn’t rely on the scientific methods and theoretical knowledge of reality, but on the imagination. This has led to a number of features of utopia, including deliberate detachment from reality and the desire to reconstruct reality. In Utopia there is always exaggeration of the spiritual principle; a special place is given to science, art, education, legislation, and other cultural factors. With the advent of scientific communism cognitive and critical meaning of the classical positive utopia begins to fall, forming dystopia.
Dystopia is the direction in literature, which in the narrow sense means the description of a totalitarian state and society, and in the broad sense it means the description of any society, where negative trends prevailed. The term dystopia was introduced by Glenn Negley and Max Patrick. Dystopia is an image of a fictional world, which should never exist.
All dystopian worlds are built on the logic, and the person is no longer a person, but a social unit. In fact, dystopian works simply cannot have an individual, because I is destroyed, and instead there is We. People do not have the right to express their own opinion. In dystopia all people obey a ritual and play a role in it.
Dystopian society is ritualized, where any movement of a person is impossible. The conflict arises when a person abandons the role in the ritual and prefers own way. The inner atmosphere of dystopia is fear.
In the history of literature, utopian novels and stories have always played a major role, as they were a form of understanding and evaluation of the future image. Appearing, as a rule, from the criticism of the present, utopia drew a further movement of society and its possible paths, and showed various options for the future.