The current state of the labor market is a result of the redistribution of employment between the spheres, sectors and enterprises, which determined the emergence of many problems, largely due to gender characteristics of changes in the scope and structure of employment. Gender inequality in the labor market is, on the one hand, one of the results of development of society, and, on the other hand, is the source of many of its problems.
Gender inequality is a social phenomenon, and it is not due to biological differences between women and men, but above all due to the fact that economic, political, and social resources are distributed unevenly between them. The reason for this is gender discrimination, that is, the action that prevents members of a particular group (women) access resources or sources of income available to the other group (men). In a competitive environment, typical of a market economy, any artificial barriers in access to scarce resources, which include, of course, high-paying jobs, are discriminatory. Discrimination in the labor market is when employees having the same characteristics on the basis of performance are treated differently, because of the fact that they belong to certain demographic groups.
Today, women formally have equal rights with men. However, there is a phenomenon of inequality of women in the labor market related to discrimination at the level of preferences, carried out by employers who have prejudice against hiring certain demographic or ethnic groups of workers. It is proved that most employers (they are usually represented by men) prefer to hire men and experience prejudice against women workers. Discrimination due to the monopoly structure of the labor market is also observed, according to which the labor market is made up of two fundamentally different sectors: primary and secondary. Jobs in the primary sector are characterized by high wages, steady employment, good working conditions, and availability of promotion. Work in the secondary sector is associated with low wages, unstable employment, lack of career prospects, and poor working conditions. Men are mostly concentrated in the primary sector, while the secondary sector is occupied mainly by women.
The inequality of wages between women and men is a socio-economic problem that requires implementation of a set of social and economic measures for its decision. The difference in earnings between men and women is due to the uneven distribution of employment by occupation and industry inequality in wages within occupations and activities, and a low estimate of the work women do.
The current state of the labor market is a result of the redistribution of employment between the spheres, sectors and enterprises, which determined the emergence of many problems, largely due to gender characteristics of changes in the scope and structure of employment.