A medium term financial crisis, partly caused by France's decisive involvement during the American Revolutionary War, led to the French crown calling an Assembly of Notables and after this, in 1789, a gathering dubbed the Estates General to gain assent for new tax laws. We should stress that the Enlightenment had drastically impacted the views of middle class French society right to the point where they demanded involvement in government as well as the financial crisis gave them a way in to obtain it. The Estates General included three ‘Estates’. These are the nobility, the clergy, and the rest of the country, though there were several arguments as for how fair this was. As for the Third Estate, it was far larger than the other two, though it only boasted just a third of the vote. This 'Third Estate', informed by long term doubts regarding the constitution of France as well as the overall development of a new social order of bourgeoisie, declared itself a National Assembly and also decreed the suspension of tax, thus taking French sovereignty into its own hands.
Then, there was a fierce power struggle, when the National Assembly took the Tennis Court Oath not to disband, and the king gave in, while the Assembly started reforming the country, scrapping the old system and making a new constitution with a Legislative Assembly. It continued the reforms, though it gave birth to divisions in France by simply legislating against the church and also declaring war on nations that backed the French king. Another revolution burst out in 1792, as Jacobins as well as sansculottes made the Assembly replace itself with a National Convention, that abolished the monarchy and declared the country a republic. The king was executed in 1793.
While the Revolutionary Wars went against the country, and regions got angry at attacks on the church, conscription rebelled and in general, the revolution became overly radicalized, the National Convention organized a Committee of Public Safety to rule France in 1793. After a fierce struggle between political factions dubbed the Girondins and the Montagnards was won by the latter, an epoch of bloody measures known as The Terror started, when up to 16,000 people were guillotined. In 1794, the revolution changed once again, turning against the Terror as well as its architect Robespierre. As a result, the Terrorists were toppled in a coup and a new constitution arose, that in 1795, created a revolutionary new legislative system run by a Directory of five men.
A medium term financial crisis, partly caused by France's decisive involvement during the American Revolutionary War, led to the French crown calling an Assembly of Notables and after this, in 1789, a gathering dubbed the Estates General to gain assent for new tax laws.