The concept Jim Crow refers to a widespread informal name of laws on racial segregation in some states of the USA in the period of 1890-1964. The book, The Strange Career of Jim Crow, written by C. Vann Woodward demonstrates an integral historical matter and important analysis of its event, its influence on race relations within and outside of the South states, and its legal termination by 1965.
Woodward demonstrates the existence of two transformations in the South. The first one happened at the end of the Civil War, when the territory was occupied by radical Republican forces coercing the Amendments to the Constitution of freedom and equal rights. This first transformation lasted until 1877, when the Great Compromise let the peaceful election of a President and the removing of all Northern forces from the South. This was the time when the South could make choices regarding race relations, and the victorious method was to set a large body of codified regulations, called Jim Crow, in order to resolutely and thoroughly divide whites and blacks.
The second transformation began quietly at first, with desegregation of a few institutions, the U.S. military and a series of Supreme Court decisions, providing for consolidation of public facilities and institutions, state-operated public schools. Blacks and white liberals demanded the implementation of a new law and Court decisions, but, an independent South fought back. As a result there was a conflict again between Southern state governments and forces for consolidation opened old wounds and periods of violence. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, officially established the end of Jim Crow.
Jim Crow is dead legally. To conclude that its termination has resulted in the analogous demise of segregation, bitterness and anger between the races, however, is untrue. Attitudes, beliefs, customs and de facto segregation cannot be legislated. Of course, the growth of large urban centers in the South and the exit of the United States into a leadership role in a world, where the white race is a minority, together with more possibilities for races to coincide, has promoted greater social and economic justice for a growing middle class of black population. The majority of blacks, however, remain in urban areas in both the North and South states, where there are less opportunities to reach the American Dream. Until these injustices are solved, racial tension will keep on influencing not just the South states, but the entire nation.
The concept Jim Crow refers to a widespread informal name of laws on racial segregation in some states of the USA in the period of 1890-1964. The book, The Strange Career of Jim Crow, written by C.