Augustus is a Roman politician, founder of the Roman Empire. Augustus was an accounted grandnephew of Caesar. He was adopted by Caesar and turned out to be at the center of the political life of the Roman Republic. Together with Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus he created the second triumvirate to deal with common opponents. After victories over Marcus Brutus and Sextus Pompey, the struggle for power began between the triumvirs, which ended in war between Antony and Augustus.
In 27-23 B.C. Augustus concentrated a number of regular and emergency posts in his hands, which allowed him to control the Roman state, avoiding the establishment of an open monarchy. The new system is called principate and Augustus is considered the first emperor in the modern sense of the word. During his reign, Augustus greatly expanded the borders of the Roman state. The active foreign policy was made possible thanks to the development of the economy, the development of provincial and military reform. Governing of Augustus was marked with the decrease of the influence of the Senate on the Roman policy and the birth of emperor worship.
Augustus was able to take into account the experience of dictatorship of Caesar for registration of personal power and to convince others that it is necessary and inevitable. Not daring to set-up a monarchy, Augustus used the republican institutions to legalize their de facto dominant position. Already in the 1st century B.C. Augustus’ reluctance to approve the hereditary power of principate predetermined the crises of throne transfer. Fierce battle for inheritance under the successors of Augustus led to the rapid extinction of fixed Augustus Julio-Claudian dynasty. Only after the Civil War and a number of palace coups, Emperor Nerva did a stable transfer of power.
Augustus reformed the army, hoping, apparently, to conquer the whole of Europe, first, and then the whole world. However, the plan failed primarily because of the underestimation of the barbarian that manifested itself in revolts in Pannonia and Germany. In addition, the emperor fully centralized management of the army, and his desire to eradicate all political activity of provincial commanders determined the lack of flexibility of the army.
An important achievement of Augustus was termination of civil wars, which resulted in strengthening of agriculture, handicraft and trade in the Mediterranean. Social support of Augustus was very broad, and the Emperor did not give preference to any senators nor horsemen, or any other groups. Finally, the formulation of principate has completed the transformation of Rome into a world power with the emerging bureaucracy.
Augustus is a Roman politician, founder of the Roman Empire. Augustus was an accounted grandnephew of Caesar. He was adopted by Caesar and turned out to be at the center of the political life of the Roman Republic. Together with Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus he created the second triumvirate to deal with common opponents.