A study of perspectives is one of the major gains of the early Renaissance. Linear, or optical, perspective, developed in the art of the 15th century, is based on the laws of optics, formulated as far back as ancient times by Euclid and Ptolemy. Sources unanimously say that the founder of architecture of the early Renaissance, Filippo Brunelleschi, was the first to use it in two forms written by him in Florence.
In 1416, Brunelleschi’s friend Donatello used linear perspective in relief of The Battle of St. George with the Dragon. In 1427-1428, Masaccio created in the fresco Trinity the classical perspective constructions in Renaissance. Finally, in 1435, Alberti gave a detailed theoretical development of these principles in the Treatise on Painting. According to him, plane of the painting is likened to the cross section of the visual pyramid; all parallel lines that go in depth are shown converging at one point on the horizon.
The perspective in the art of the 15th century is not just a way to pass the depths of space, but also something much more. It becomes a tool to organize colorful and diverse picture of reality, to give it structural and aesthetic unity, and subordinate it to the strict laws of proportional relationships. For the early Renaissance masters perspective turns into a universal principle of the organization of space and composition that can be applied not only to art, but also to the architecture.
Perspective as a means of more convincing transfer of the real world to the plane was already used in the 13th century. In the 14th century, Ambrogio Lorenzetti and Gerardo Starnina gave particularly promising solutions of perspective. And they relied not only on science, but on experiences as well. Meanwhile, science was studying the development of perspectives. Biagio Pelakani wrote a treatise in 1390, A Matter of Perspective. It is assumed that Paolo Toscanelli, a friend of Brunelleschi, wrote a small treatise about the perspective preserved in a single list and is traditionally attributed to Alberti.
The authors ranged in relation to knowledge of perspectives by ancient artists: Manetti conceded it, Alberti and Filarete denied it, but in any case, it was clear that the ancient masters in one form or another enjoyed the perspective. It is believed that Brunelleschi revived the good old traditions of antiquity.
The discovery of evidence-based perspectives by Brunelleschi immediately gave rise to a wide response. A study of perspectives fully met the needs of the era, the needs of a new and realistic art, which was able to display nature in three dimensions.
A study of perspectives is one of the major gains of the early Renaissance. Linear, or optical, perspective, developed in the art of the 15th century, is based on the laws of optics, formulated as far back as ancient times by Euclid and Ptolemy.