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From the Very Beginning of Time

A Brief History of Time is a popular science book written by the famous physicist Stephen Hawking, first published in 1988 by the American publishing house Bantam Books. The book tells about the emergence of the universe, the nature of space and time, black holes, string theory, and some mathematical problems, but on the pages of the book one can find only one formula.

The book begins with a story about the evolution of human conceptions of the universe: from the celestial spheres of geocentric system of Aristotle and Ptolemy to the awareness of the fact that the Sun is an ordinary yellow star of an average size in one of the arms of the spiral galaxy – among the hundreds of billions of other galaxies in the observable part of the universe. The discovery of the red shift of the spectra of stars of other galaxies meant that the universe is expanding, and this has led to the hypothesis of Big Bang: ten or twenty billion years ago, all the objects of the universe could be in one place with an infinite density (point of singularity).

The Big Bang is the beginning of the count of time. There is no answer to the question on whether there was anything before the big bang, because scientific laws stop working in the point of singularity; the ability to predict the future is lost, so if something happened before, it does not affect current events. There are two possible scenarios after the big bang: either the expansion of the universe will go on forever, or at some point it will stop and go into the compression phase, which will end in a return to singularity because of the large explosion. It is not clear which option will be realized – it depends on the distance between the galaxies, and the total mass of matter in the universe, but these quantities are not known precisely.

Singularity can be in the universe after the big bang. The star, having spent nuclear fuel, begins to shrink, and at a sufficiently large mass cannot resist gravitational collapse, turning into a black hole. English mathematician and physicist Roger Penrose showed that the volume of the star tends to zero, and its density of matter and the curvature of space-time – to infinity. In other words, a black hole is the singularity in space-time.

Turning the direction of time, Penrose and Hawking proved the assertion that if the theory of general relativity (GR) is true, the point of the Big Bang must exist. Thus the hypothesis of the Big Bang became a mathematical theorem, and general relativity itself was incomplete: its laws are violated at the point of singularity.

A Brief History of Time is a popular science book written by the famous physicist Stephen Hawking, first published in 1988 by the American publishing house Bantam Books. The book tells about the emergence of the universe, the nature of space and time, black holes, string theory, and some mathematical problems, but on the pages of the book one can find only one formula.

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100001158
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CREATED ON
August 28, 2016
COMPLETED ON
August 29, 2016
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$13
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michael.easley1151
December 8, 2016
michael.easley1151
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ashleyannette981
December 8, 2016
ashleyannette981
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December 8, 2016
Yoslanqv1985
Excellent work. Will definitely use again