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Behaviorists and School

Behaviorism in the broadest sense is the direction in psychology, which studies human behavior and ways of influencing human behavior.

Behaviorism in the narrow sense, or classic behaviorism, is behaviorism of John Watson and his school, which studies only externally observable behavior and does not distinguish between the behavior of humans and other animals. For classical behaviorism all mental phenomena are reduced to the reactions of the organism, mainly motor ones: thinking is identified with the speech motor acts, emotions are identified with the changes within the body, while the mind is not studied, as something that doesn’t have behavioral indicators. The main mechanism of behavior is communication of stimulus and response.

The basic method of classical behaviorism is observation and experimental study of the reactions of the organism in response to environmental influences in order to identify correlations available to mathematical description between these variables.

Representatives of behaviorism are Edward Thorndike, Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, Edward Chace Tolman, and B. F. Skinner.

Mission of behaviorism is to translate speculative fantasy of humanities into the language of scientific observation. Behaviorism was born as a protest against random and conceptual speculation of researchers that do not define concepts in a clear and operational way, but explain behavior only metaphorically, without translating explanations in clear language instructions: what needs to be done to get changes in behavior.

Behaviorism became the ancestor of the behavioral approach in practical psychology, where human behavior is the focus of a psychologist. Over time, however, there was a need to distinguish between behavioral and behavioristic approach. Behavioral approach in practical psychology is an approach that implements the principles of classical behaviorism, i.e., works primarily with externally visible and observable behavior of a person and studies the person only as an object of influence in complete analogy with the natural-scientific approach. However, the behavioristic approach is broader. It includes not only behavioral, but also cognitive-behavioral, and personal-behavioral approach, where a psychologist sees a man as the author of both external and internal behavior (thoughts and emotions, the choice of one or other role or position) – any actions the person is responsible for.

Behaviorism approach blends well with other approaches of modern practical psychology. Many modern behaviorists use the elements of the Gestalt approach and the elements of psychoanalysis.

Behaviorism in the broadest sense is the direction in psychology, which studies human behavior and ways of influencing human behavior.

Behaviorism in the narrow sense, or classic behaviorism, is behaviorism of John Watson and his school, which studies only externally observable behavior and does not distinguish between the behavior of humans and other animals.

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100001028
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CREATED ON
August 27, 2016
COMPLETED ON
August 28, 2016
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$10
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Essay Example Comments
Native 123
December 6, 2016
Native 123
Thank you so much. You are the best!!
Helen 67
December 4, 2016
Helen 67
Good work
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December 4, 2016
Aiden Clarke
Outstanding Work!