Anthropologists study the human being as a species, in terms of its origin (anthropogenesis), development, diversity, identity of people of different age, gender, and different nationality. In many countries, anthropology includes ethnography, archeology, and a number of other disciplines. The subject of interest of anthropologists may be not only the current state of humanity, but also its history.
Anthropology is the doctrine of a man as the highest product of nature. All the properties and characteristics of a person are explained only by its natural origin. Anthropology emphasizes the connection of a person and nature, and counters the idealistic and dualistic understanding of human nature. The term anthropology is of Greek origin and literally means science of a man. Anthropology is an area of scientific knowledge, which subject is the study of people. Science aims not only to describe this diversity, but also determine the causes leading to it.
The first use of the term dates back to antiquity. Aristotle used it for the first time referring to the area of knowledge that studies mainly the spiritual side of a human nature.
Anthropology includes a variety of disciplines: physical anthropology, social anthropology, cultural anthropology, linguistic anthropology, prehistoric anthropology. In philosophy, there is a section of philosophical anthropology.
Past human communities are studied by the fossil skeletons and skulls. Among famous anthropologists we can name the following: Eugene Dubois who found the skull of Pithecanthropus, Robert Dart (first discovered Australopithecus), Louis Leakey, his wife Mary and son Robert (finds of Homo habilis, and many species of Australopithecus).
Anthropological knowledge is used in many fields of science and practice – in archeology, medicine, pedagogy, psychology of work and engineering psychology, and ethnology. Accordingly, the anthropologist should have some orientation in these fields of knowledge and practice as well. There an be studies on the joints of Anthropology and other sciences.
Social anthropologists study the manifestations of humans in culture and society: in the family, religion, the economy, and so forth.
Social anthropologists examine the principles of obtaining and using power in different societies, economic behavior, identify the factors affecting the economy that are not studied by the economic science.
Cultural anthropology provides an opportunity to understand the essence of the contradictions between the various nations, social classes, and so on.
Anthropologists study the human being as a species, in terms of its origin (anthropogenesis), development, diversity, identity of people of different age, gender, and different nationality. In many countries, anthropology includes ethnography, archeology, and a number of other disciplines.