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Avant-Garde Movement in Jazz in the 1960’s

Avant-garde jazz is a code name for a group of styles and trends of modern jazz, oriented toward modernization of the musical language and the development of new, non-traditional expressive means and techniques (in the field of atonality, modal improvisation and composition, aleatory, sonority, electronic sound synthesis ).

Avant-garde jazz include areas such jazz music like free jazz, abstract jazz, third stream, electronic jazz, hard bop, cool jazz, jazz-rock, and others.

Avant-garde jazz was born in the fifties of the twentieth century. Its origins are to be found in musical experiments of stylistic successor of Charlie Parker. Among its pioneers are the New York jazz musicians, like Charles Mingus, Eric Dolphy, Miles Davis, Andrew Hill, Alice Coltrane and John Coltrane, who introduced jazz modal improvisation and experimented with atonality and dissonance. John Coltrane perhaps had the greatest impact on the emergence of avant-garde jazz, who expanded the boundaries of post-bop and hard bop.

In the sixties the center of avant-garde jazz development moved to Chicago, where Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians began supporting various artists and groups of avant-garde jazz (Muhal Richard Abrams, Anthony Braxton, Roscoe Mitchell, Hamid Drake, and The Art Ensemble of Chicago).

During the avant-garde jazz of this period also worked Sonny Sharrock, who was experimenting in mixing jazz with ethnic harmony.

In 1960, the sixth album of Coleman Free Jazz: A Collective Improvisation was released, which gave later the name of the new style. Double quartet took part in the recording, which included two musicians for each instrument, and the whole album is a forty-minute collective improvisation without a prearranged sequence of chords. In 1963, Archie Shepp, Don Cherry and John Chick created ensemble New York Contemporary Five, which, however, ceased to exist due to the lack of engagements a year. A year later, Tchikai, Roswell Rudd, Milford Graves and Lewis Worrell created New York Art Quartet, which also disbanded for a year for the same reason. At the heart of the game of these groups was the collective improvisation revived since the time of Dixieland.

Avant-garde jazz is characterized with a desire to be free from traditional harmony, rhythm, and meter structure. Basing on the new means of expression and techniques, jazz leaders sought complete subordination of the musical structure to the goals of individual performance and collective expression.

Avant-garde jazz is a code name for a group of styles and trends of modern jazz, oriented toward modernization of the musical language and the development of new, non-traditional expressive means and techniques (in the field of atonality, modal improvisation and composition, aleatory, sonority, electronic sound synthesis ).

Assignment ID
100000581
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CREATED ON
16 July 2016
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19 July 2016
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