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The Acts of Civil Disobedience

The concept of civil disobedience is usually associated with the second half of the 19th century and the 20th century. The term was first used by the American writer Henry David Thoreau in 1848. At all times there were people who tried to peacefully resist state violence.

American philosopher Ronald Dworkin identified three types of civil disobedience. Integrity-based (based on honesty) – people refuse to obey the laws that they considered immoral; justice-based (based on justice) – people protest against the law, which, in their view, does not correspond to the Constitution (for example, US activists in 1950s and 1960s fought against the laws of the southern states, contrary to federal decisions); policy-based (based on the policy) – people do not obey the laws, trying to change the wrong policy of the state (for example, the fighters for the independence of Ireland).

All these three types of civil disobedience combine human readiness for conscientious objection to the implementation of the law on the clear understanding of all the possible consequences of such behavior. In fact, civil disobedience suggests that personal responsibility of a person for what is happening can be more important than the need to obey the law.

One of the first cases of civil disobedience was recorded by Sophocles. The whole story of his tragedy Antigone is a history of civil disobedience. Both Antigone’s brothers, Polynices and Eteocles, were killed in the battle. Eteocles died defending native Thebes and Polynices brought home the enemy. Antigone’s uncle, Creon, ordered to bury Eteocles with honors, but to leave Polynices unburied, threatening death to anyone who violates this order. But Antigone cannot leave her brother unburied. Thus, she conducts an act of civil disobedience.

Over the subsequent centuries after the Antiquity, civil disobedience in its non-violent form didn’t exist. But in general, for about two thousand years, all those who did not like authority, used weapons to fight for it. This was until the 18th century, when the civil society in its present form appeared.

One of the most famous examples of civil disobedience is actions of Gandhi. His teachings are much broader than just the political struggle for the liberation of India. Gandhi is a religious philosopher who sought above all the spiritual transformation. In the political sphere it is manifested primarily in the intensive use of the methods of civil disobedience. Gandhi constantly urged his supporters to peacefully protest campaigns in which more and more people were involved every year.

The basic principles of this approach to political struggle were formed by people for whom personal responsibility for the situation was the most important principle of existence. They proceeded from the fact that, even while remaining on the sidelines, one becomes an accomplice of injustice perpetrated around. For them, it was necessary to actively oppose the state violence, but the confrontation should be peaceful – and this is the most important lesson they have left for us.

The concept of civil disobedience is usually associated with the second half of the 19th century and the 20th century. The term was first used by the American writer Henry David Thoreau in 1848. At all times there were people who tried to peacefully resist state violence.

American philosopher Ronald Dworkin identified three types of civil disobedience.

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100000560
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CREATED ON
July 11, 2016
COMPLETED ON
July 12, 2016
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Essay Example Comments
ingMario8884
July 11, 2016
ingMario8884
I have tried 3 writers here and this guy is the best one. although he did not have a wide knowledge of the topic he made an effort to research about and met the deadlines.
seansegui071304
June 1, 2016
seansegui071304
Needed a little more work/effort in the sections towards the end but other than that good job.
seansegui071304
June 1, 2016
seansegui071304
Great job, well put.