For modern people, it’s hard to imagine their lives without electric motors. Nowadays, they can be found almost everywhere, from remote-controlled cars to electric trains. You will be surprised to learn how common this kind of motor actually is. You use them in your computer, hair dryers, different toys, extractor fans, electric shavers, kitchen appliances, dishwashers, microwaves, coffee grinders, can openers, etc.
It’s obvious that an electric motor is one of the greatest inventions in the whole history so that you need to get a better understanding of how it works and its physics. Keep in mind that even small electric motors can be heavy because they are packed with wound copper and quite heavy magnets.
Basically, the key idea of electric motors is quite simply because people put electricity into them at one end and a metal rod or an axle rotates at the other end to provide you with enough power to drive different machines or appliances. How does this concept work in practice? How do people convert electricity into movement when using these motors? To find the right answers to these and other questions, you need to go back in time for almost 200 years.
Take a length of some ordinary wire, make it into a huge loop, and lay it between the poles of a strong magnet. When you connect the 2 ends of this wire to any battery, it will jump up, and this effect is amazing to see, especially for newcomers, because it looks like a real magic. However, there is a scientific explanation of this effect, and it’s discussed below.
When an electric current starts creeping along wires, this is what creates some magnetic field around it. When placing a wire near any magnet, this kind of field starts interacting with it. Remember that 2 magnets placed close to each other will either repel or interact. Pay attention to temporary magnetism around wires that repels or attracts the one of magnets, and this is what results in a wire jumping.
In addition, it’s possible to determine the right direction in which your wire will jump, and you only need to use a handy aid called Fleming’s left-hand or motor rule. Remember that electric motors consist of different parts, but you can imagine only their 2 basic components. The first one is a permanent magnet around their edge case and it remains static and is called a stator. The second one is a coil mounted on the axle that spins around quite fast, and it’s called a rotor.
For modern people, it’s hard to imagine their lives without electric motors. Nowadays, they can be found almost everywhere, from remote-controlled cars to electric trains. You will be surprised to learn how common this kind of motor actually is.