This hypothesis has emerged in the past two decades, based on the theory of the biosphere, ecology and co-evolution concept. Its authors are the British chemist James Lovelock and American microbiologist Lynn Margulis. At first, the chemical non-equilibrium of the Earth’s atmosphere has been detected, which is seen as a sign of life. According to Lovelock, if life is a global integrity, its presence can be detected through a change in the chemical composition of the planet’s atmosphere.
Lovelock introduced the concept of geophysiology, indicating a systematic approach to the sciences about the Earth. According to the Gaia hypothesis, maintenance of a long-term chemical disequilibrium of Earth’s atmosphere is due to the totality of life processes on Earth. Since the beginning of life, 3.5 billion years ago, there was an automatic mechanism of biological thermostatics, in which the excess of nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere played a regulatory role, preventing the warming trend, coupled with increasing of sunlight brightness. In other words, the feedback mechanism operates.
Lovelock has constructed a model, according to which during the change of the brightness of the solar streams, diversity increases, leading to a growth in the ability to regulate the temperature of the surface of the planet, as well as to the growth of biomass.
The essence of the Gaia hypothesis is the following: the Earth is a self-regulatory system established by the biota and the environment, able to maintain the chemical composition of the atmosphere and thus maintain a favorable permanence of the climate for the life.
At the same time, the Gaia turns the scum in the necessary items and, apparently, is to survive, even if as a result of a nuclear war mankind would be destroyed. The evolution of the biosphere, according to Lovelock, can be a process that goes beyond the full understanding, control and even human intervention.
Approaching the Gaia hypothesis from a biological point of view, Margulis believes that life on Earth is a network of interdependent relationships, allowing the planet to act as a self-regulating system.
Thus, according to the hypothesis of Gaia, the biosphere is a complex giant organism, superorganism, which is capable of converting its environment so that it is most favorable to it.
However, lately, an anthropogenic impact on the biosphere has increased, and this leads to a less optimistic view of the possibilities of the biosphere to maintain the environment needed for its existence.
This hypothesis has emerged in the past two decades, based on the theory of the biosphere, ecology and co-evolution concept. Its authors are the British chemist James Lovelock and American microbiologist Lynn Margulis. At first, the chemical non-equilibrium of the Earth’s atmosphere has been detected, which is seen as a sign of life.