Romanticism is an ideological and artistic movement that emerged in the European and American culture in the late 18th century – the first half of the 19th century as a reaction to classical aesthetics. Originally it was formed in philosophy and poetry in Germany, and later it spread to England, France, and other countries. It predestined the latest development of art, even those of its direction that were against it.
There were new criteria in art – freedom of expression, attention to individual, unique features of people, naturalness, sincerity and looseness, which replaced the imitation of classic designs of the 18th century. Romantics rejected rationalism and empiricism of the Enlightenment as a mechanistic, impersonal and artificial. Instead, they put emotional expression and inspiration at the forefront.
Romantics wanted to give their new views reveal the truths. Their place in society has changed. They found readers among the growing middle class that was ready to emotionally support and even bow to the artist. Modesty and humility were rejected. They were replaced by strong emotions, often reaching the extremes.
Youth was especially influenced by Romanticism that got the opportunity to learn and read a lot. Personal development was placed above the vanity and standards of fading aristocratic society. Romanticism of an educated youth changed the status society in Europe, becoming the beginning of the emergence of an educated middle class in Europe. The painting Wanderer above the Sea of Fog can justifiably be called a symbol of the Romantic period in Europe.
Some romantics turned to the mysterious, enigmatic, even terrible, folk legends, and fairy tales. Romanticism was partly related to the democratic, national and revolutionary movements, although the classical culture of the French Revolution actually slowed the arrival of Romanticism in France. The inspiration for the German writers, who have declared themselves romantics, was transcendental philosophy of Kant and Fichte, which focuses on the creative possibilities of the mind.
Thus, Romanticism began as a literary trend. It has had a significant impact on the music and less on the painting. In the visual arts, Romanticism was most clearly manifested in painting and graphics, less – in architecture. Favorite motifs of the artists were mountain scenery and picturesque ruins. Its main features were the dynamic composition, volumetric spatiality, full of color, light and shade.
Romanticism is an ideological and artistic movement that emerged in the European and American culture in the late 18th century – the first half of the 19th century as a reaction to classical aesthetics. Originally it was formed in philosophy and poetry in Germany, and later it spread to England, France, and other countries.