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Why Dualism Is Rejected by Science

Dualism is a philosophical doctrine that comes from the recognition of the equal and irreducible to each other two of the basic principles of the universe – the material and the spiritual, physical and mental, body and soul.

Dualism can be epistemological, emphasizing the contrast between two ways of looking at life; ontological that insists on the heterogeneity and the fundamental irreducibility of two substances; anthropological that emphasizes the contrast of body and soul.

Descartes is considered the founder of this philosophical doctrine. He introduced to the philosophy the idea of two qualitatively different and irreducible to each other substances – extended and thinking. The properties of the material substance are physicality and length. Thinking substance is the soul, the spirit, and consciousness. Material substance, represented as a mechanism, where the law of the immutability of momentum dominates, was seen as opposed to thinking substance, which is free and autonomous, able to creatively implement intellectual activity.

Representation of the external world and the nature is clearly in my mind, thus according to Descartes, the extended world with all the qualities, which we learn about in our views really exists. The extended content in the basis of the world is the body or matter. The nature of the matter, according to the philosophy of Descartes, is not hardness, weight, color, but only the length. Only the latter, allowing the numerical measurement forms the basis of not only the geometry, but also the physics.

Body has an extension, but soul doesn’t. There is a diametric difference between the two. The body may be destroyed, while the soul is indestructible, immortal. In the true sense only God can be called a substance. The only main property of the matter, according to the philosophy of Descartes, is extension. The amount of matter and motion, originally embedded in the world by God, remains unchanged.

Descartes thought of animals as living machines without a soul and feelings, since they are controlled entirely by instinct and don’t have any free will. In people, an extended substance (body) and the thinking soul converge in a single unpaired organ of the brain, its central hardware.

Science rejects dualism as it posits a separate, but equal reality, forces of which move on a spiritual plane affecting the reality we perceive. Evil and Good are seen in balance. Extending to science this would give spiritual reasons for observed phenomena, rather than testing hypotheses. Naturally science rejects this point of view.

Dualism is a philosophical doctrine that comes from the recognition of the equal and irreducible to each other two of the basic principles of the universe – the material and the spiritual, physical and mental, body and soul.

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June 26, 2016
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June 27, 2016
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