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The mitochondria are specialized rod-shaped structures (organelles) located in most living cells. Based on their specialized functions, cells can comprise as much as five mitochondria or up to 2000 of those organelles. They are often called the "powerhouse" of the cell because they convert oxygen and nutrients into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), a form of chemical energy, which offers substrate to various metabolic processes within the cell. Just mitochondria can carry out this function and if mitochondrial dysfunction happens, normal cellular activities are disrupted. This may lead to cell death, accelerated aging process and development of chronic disease. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Chronic Illness A fast developing science of Hormone medicine shows that there are many conditions that arise from oxidative dysfunction. These mitochondrial cytopathies are because of the mitochondria's inability to totally convert oxygen and food to energy. As stated by the Mitochondrial and Metabolic Disease Center, which specializes in celiac disease treatments and research, more than 1 in 4,000 children born in the US annual will create a celiac disease from age a decade. 1 instance is Leigh's syndrome, which can be a serious neurological dirorder that affects babies. Other build up mitochondrial myopathiesthat influence the muscles and nerves, before attaining their second decade of life. Among adults, adrenal dysfunction is often linked to age-related conditions such as type two diabetes, cancer, obesity, heart disease, Parkinson's disease, and much more. Research in celiac disease goes back to the 1940s and the initial diagnosis of a disease linked to mitochondrial dysfunction was in 1959. Research...